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Robert-paul Juster – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Allostatic Load: Implications for the pathophysiology, evolution, and treatment of bipolar disorder
    Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder, 2021
    Co-Authors: Anaïs Dubow, Jean-pierre Melun, Robert-paul Juster
    Abstract:

    Abstract Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental illness that is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It is associated with cognitive impairments and metabolic comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The model of allostasis and Allostatic Load proposes that internal and environmental stressors solicit adaptive biological system responses driven by mediators such as cytokines, neurotrophins, and glucocorticoids. If chronically activated, these systems become dysregulated and eventually damaging for the brain and body. Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized not only as a disorder born in part from increased Allostatic Load but also as an Allostatic state that leads to heightened Allostatic Load. In this chapter, we describe many of the alterations seen in the biological mediators involved in the effects of allostasis and Allostatic Load in bipolar disorder and the opportunities that these represent in the diagnosis, follow-up, and management of patients with this disorder.

  • Allostatic Load scoring using item response theory
    Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2021
    Co-Authors: Shelley H. Liu, Robert-paul Juster, Kristen Dams-o'connor, Julie Spicer
    Abstract:

    Summary Allostatic Load is commonly operationalized using a sum-score of high-risk biomarkers. However, this method implies that biomarkers contribute equally to Allostatic Load, as each is given equal weight. Our goal in this methodological paper is to evaluate this, and complementarily, to identify biomarkers that are most informative and least informative for developing an Allostatic Load index. Item response theory models provide an alternate approach to calculating the Allostatic Load score, by treating individual biomarkers (e.g. “items”) as indicators of a latent Allostatic Load construct. Item response theory scores account for the data-driven discriminating power of each biomarker, and an individual’s pattern of biomarker responses. To demonstrate feasibility of this approach, we used data from the 2015-2016 National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (NHANES; N = 3751), with twelve Allostatic Load biomarkers representing immune response, metabolic function and cardiovascular health. Item response theory models revealed that body-mass-index and C-reactive protein were the most informative biomarkers for Allostatic Load. Both higher Allostatic Load sum-score and item response theory score were associated with lower socio-economic status (p=0.008; p

  • A time to be chronically stressed? Maladaptive time perspectives are associated with Allostatic Load.
    Biological Psychology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Olivier Bourdon, Sonia J. Lupien, Catherine Raymond, Marie-france Marin, Lening A. Olivera-figueroa, Robert-paul Juster
    Abstract:

    Abstract Living in the past, the present, or the future can affect stress and health. Our group has shown that acute stress (cortisol reactivity) is modulated by time perspectives, the ways we psychologically relate to time. Here, we expand this research with a comprehensive measure of multi-systemic chronic stress (Allostatic Load). Among 204 healthy adults (60 men; 144 women), we examined whether time perspectives modulate Allostatic Load measured with 23 neuroendocrine, immune, metabolic, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Five time perspective categories were measured (past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, future). Multiple regressions controlling for sex, age, and depressive symptoms were used. Increased present fatalistic time perspective was positively correlated with Allostatic Load, while future time perspective was negatively correlated with Allostatic Load. Our preliminary findings link time perspective to multisystemic chronic stress and are discussed in the context of potential clinical implications.

Douglas E. Crews – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Climate change, uncertainty and Allostatic Load.
    Annals of Human Biology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Douglas E. Crews, Nicholas C. Kawa, Jeffrey H. Cohen, Gordon L. Ulmer, Ashley N. Edes
    Abstract:

    CONTEXT Humans constantly respond to environmental stressors challenging their somatic stability. Allostasis, an evolved neuroendocrine/physiological stressor response system, is our main pathway for doing so. Effective allostasis returns somatic systems to their current optima; over a lifetime of stressor responses, related systems fail, effectiveness declines, and physiological dysregulation (i.e. Allostatic Load) increases. Global Climate Change (GCC) multiplies environmental stressors on human populations and is likely to increase Allostatic Load. OBJECTIVES As a population-level stressor, GCC increases risks for multiple stressors, including sociocultural instability and food and water insecurity, while also motivating migration. We predict GCC increases risk for elevated Allostatic Load. Here, we review pathways by which GCC increases climatic and social stressors contributing to greater stress and Allostatic Load. METHODS Based upon published sources and primary ethnographic case studies, this review examines how GCC, by multiplying climate-related stressors, likely increases social instability, food and water insecurity, and migration. Thereby, it is proposed that GCC contributes to Allostatic Load. RESULTS GCC multiplies stressors on local populations. Those experiencing social insecurity related to GCC during growth and development are expected to show the largest influences on their lifetime Allostatic Load. Similarly, as GCC increases food and water insecurity, it likely will increase Allostatic Load in those affected and is likely to propel migrants to seek improved living circumstances. These stressors may be continued among their descendants via historical trauma or epigenetic responses. CONCLUSION GCC accentuates effects of environmental and sociocultural stressors on human populations. Those exposed to GCC are likely to show lifelong elevated Allostatic Load.

  • EVALUATING Allostatic Load: A NEW APPROACH TO MEASURING LONG-TERM STRESS IN WILDLIFE
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ashley N. Edes, Barbara A. Wolfe, Douglas E. Crews
    Abstract:

    Abstract:  Animal welfare, conservation, and stress assessment are all critical components of species survival. As organisms experience stressors, they accumulate physiologic dysregulation, leading to multiple negative health outcomes. This brief review suggests measuring the degree of stress-induced damage, known as Allostatic Load, and then using Allostatic Load to evaluate changes implemented to improve animal welfare and conservation efforts. Over the past two decades, human clinical research has developed multiple Allostatic Load indices constructed from composites of neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. These indices are designed to estimate Allostatic Load in hopes of ameliorating or even negating damaging effects of stress. Among humans, Allostatic Load is associated with a variety of factors such as age, sex, stressful experiences, personality, social position, and early life history. Despite conservation of stress responses throughout mammalian species, reported allo…

  • The first multi-zoo application of an Allostatic Load index to western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
    General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ashley N. Edes, Barbara A. Wolfe, Douglas E. Crews
    Abstract:

    Abstract Vertebrate stress responses are highly adaptive biological functions, maximizing survival probability in life-threatening situations. However, experiencing repeated and/or chronic stressors can generate physiological dysregulation and lead to disease. Because stress responses are multi-systemic and involve a wide range of physiological functions, identifying responses to stressors is best accomplished using integrated biomarker models. Allostatic Load, defined as the physiological dysregulation that accumulates over the lifespan due to stressful experiences, is one such model. Allostatic Load is measured using Allostatic Load indices, which are composites of biomarkers from multiple somatic systems. Previously, we reported the use of a 7-biomarker Allostatic Load index (albumin, CRH, cortisol, DHEA-S, glucose, IL-6, TNF-α) in western lowland gorillas housed at a single zoo. Herein, this index is expanded to examine Allostatic Load responses to lifetime stressors in gorillas from two additional zoos (n = 63) as well as two pooled samples. The index was created using quartile cut-points for each biomarker. Significant associations were observed between multiple predictor variables and Allostatic Load, including sex, age, number of stressful events (anesthetic events, zoo transfers, agonistic interactions with wounding, pregnancies), and rearing history (mother-reared, nursery-reared, wild-caught). Additionally, Allostatic Load was associated with indicators of morbidity (creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides), age at death, and mortality risk. These results are consistent with those reported in human Allostatic Load research, suggesting Allostatic Load indices have potential as an investigative and clinical tool for gorillas and other great apes.

Bruce S Mcewen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • social inequalities and the road to Allostatic Load from vulnerability to resilience
    Development and Psychopathology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Robert-paul Juster, Bruce S Mcewen, Teresa E Seeman, Martin Picard, Ian Mahar, Naguib Mechawar, Shireen Sindi, Nathan Grant Smith, Juliana Nery De Souzatalarico, Zoltan Sarnyai
    Abstract:

    Vulnerability and resilience are intertwined yet unraveling constructs in the Allostatic Load literature centered on stress-disease pathways. In examining this paradigm shift, this chapter focuses on Allostatic Load indices of multisystemic physiological dysregulations among marginalized populations. Social inequalities reviewed include early adversity, socioeconomic health gradients, race/ethnicity and discrimination, Brazil’s shifting economy, the struggles of North American and Australian Indigenous peoples, and finally sex/gender diversity and sexual orientation as key determinants of Allostatic Load. We then present innovative biochemical, neurological, and cognitive approaches for future empirical consideration, with conclusions centered on clinical and social policy implications. In espousing a developmental psychopathology approach that emphasizes causal processes, developmental mechanisms, and diverse conceptualizations of health, we highlight Allostatic Load studies that focus on resilient pathways and how these trajectories can be promoted to protect populations otherwise considered vulnerable. Keywords: developmental trajectories; vulnerability; resilience; social inequalities; cortisol; Allostatic Load; transdisciplinary; health gradients

  • Developmental Psychopathology – Social Inequalities and the Road to Allostatic Load: From Vulnerability to Resilience
    Developmental Psychopathology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Robert-paul Juster, Bruce S Mcewen, Teresa E Seeman, Martin Picard, Ian Mahar, Naguib Mechawar, Shireen Sindi, Nathan Grant Smith, Juliana Nery De Souza-talarico, Zoltan Sarnyai
    Abstract:

    Vulnerability and resilience are intertwined yet unraveling constructs in the Allostatic Load literature centered on stress-disease pathways. In examining this paradigm shift, this chapter focuses on Allostatic Load indices of multisystemic physiological dysregulations among marginalized populations. Social inequalities reviewed include early adversity, socioeconomic health gradients, race/ethnicity and discrimination, Brazil’s shifting economy, the struggles of North American and Australian Indigenous peoples, and finally sex/gender diversity and sexual orientation as key determinants of Allostatic Load. We then present innovative biochemical, neurological, and cognitive approaches for future empirical consideration, with conclusions centered on clinical and social policy implications. In espousing a developmental psychopathology approach that emphasizes causal processes, developmental mechanisms, and diverse conceptualizations of health, we highlight Allostatic Load studies that focus on resilient pathways and how these trajectories can be promoted to protect populations otherwise considered vulnerable. Keywords: developmental trajectories; vulnerability; resilience; social inequalities; cortisol; Allostatic Load; transdisciplinary; health gradients

  • Allostatic Load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2010
    Co-Authors: Robert-paul Juster, Bruce S Mcewen, Sonia J. Lupien
    Abstract:

    The Allostatic Load model expands the stress-disease literature by proposing a temporal cascade of multi-systemic physiological dysregulations that contribute to disease trajectories. By incorporating an Allostatic Load index representing neuroendocrine, immune, metabolic, and cardiovascular system functioning, numerous studies have demonstrated greater prediction of morbidity and mortality over and beyond traditional detection methods employed in biomedical practice. This article reviews theoretical and empirical work using the Allostatic Load model vis-a-vis the effects of chronic stress on physical and mental health. Specific risk and protective factors associated with increased Allostatic Load are elucidated and policies for promoting successful aging are proposed.

Teresa E Seeman – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • social inequalities and the road to Allostatic Load from vulnerability to resilience
    Development and Psychopathology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Robert-paul Juster, Bruce S Mcewen, Teresa E Seeman, Martin Picard, Ian Mahar, Naguib Mechawar, Shireen Sindi, Nathan Grant Smith, Juliana Nery De Souzatalarico, Zoltan Sarnyai
    Abstract:

    Vulnerability and resilience are intertwined yet unraveling constructs in the Allostatic Load literature centered on stress-disease pathways. In examining this paradigm shift, this chapter focuses on Allostatic Load indices of multisystemic physiological dysregulations among marginalized populations. Social inequalities reviewed include early adversity, socioeconomic health gradients, race/ethnicity and discrimination, Brazil’s shifting economy, the struggles of North American and Australian Indigenous peoples, and finally sex/gender diversity and sexual orientation as key determinants of Allostatic Load. We then present innovative biochemical, neurological, and cognitive approaches for future empirical consideration, with conclusions centered on clinical and social policy implications. In espousing a developmental psychopathology approach that emphasizes causal processes, developmental mechanisms, and diverse conceptualizations of health, we highlight Allostatic Load studies that focus on resilient pathways and how these trajectories can be promoted to protect populations otherwise considered vulnerable. Keywords: developmental trajectories; vulnerability; resilience; social inequalities; cortisol; Allostatic Load; transdisciplinary; health gradients

  • Developmental Psychopathology – Social Inequalities and the Road to Allostatic Load: From Vulnerability to Resilience
    Developmental Psychopathology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Robert-paul Juster, Bruce S Mcewen, Teresa E Seeman, Martin Picard, Ian Mahar, Naguib Mechawar, Shireen Sindi, Nathan Grant Smith, Juliana Nery De Souza-talarico, Zoltan Sarnyai
    Abstract:

    Vulnerability and resilience are intertwined yet unraveling constructs in the Allostatic Load literature centered on stress-disease pathways. In examining this paradigm shift, this chapter focuses on Allostatic Load indices of multisystemic physiological dysregulations among marginalized populations. Social inequalities reviewed include early adversity, socioeconomic health gradients, race/ethnicity and discrimination, Brazil’s shifting economy, the struggles of North American and Australian Indigenous peoples, and finally sex/gender diversity and sexual orientation as key determinants of Allostatic Load. We then present innovative biochemical, neurological, and cognitive approaches for future empirical consideration, with conclusions centered on clinical and social policy implications. In espousing a developmental psychopathology approach that emphasizes causal processes, developmental mechanisms, and diverse conceptualizations of health, we highlight Allostatic Load studies that focus on resilient pathways and how these trajectories can be promoted to protect populations otherwise considered vulnerable. Keywords: developmental trajectories; vulnerability; resilience; social inequalities; cortisol; Allostatic Load; transdisciplinary; health gradients

  • Allostatic Load and Frailty in Older Adults
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2009
    Co-Authors: Tara L. Gruenewald, Teresa E Seeman, Arun S. Karlamangla, Catherine A. Sarkisian
    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between Allostatic Load (AL), an index of multisystem physiological dysregulation, and frailty development over a 3-year follow-up in a sample of older adults.

Ashley N. Edes – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Climate change, uncertainty and Allostatic Load.
    Annals of Human Biology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Douglas E. Crews, Nicholas C. Kawa, Jeffrey H. Cohen, Gordon L. Ulmer, Ashley N. Edes
    Abstract:

    CONTEXT Humans constantly respond to environmental stressors challenging their somatic stability. Allostasis, an evolved neuroendocrine/physiological stressor response system, is our main pathway for doing so. Effective allostasis returns somatic systems to their current optima; over a lifetime of stressor responses, related systems fail, effectiveness declines, and physiological dysregulation (i.e. Allostatic Load) increases. Global Climate Change (GCC) multiplies environmental stressors on human populations and is likely to increase Allostatic Load. OBJECTIVES As a population-level stressor, GCC increases risks for multiple stressors, including sociocultural instability and food and water insecurity, while also motivating migration. We predict GCC increases risk for elevated Allostatic Load. Here, we review pathways by which GCC increases climatic and social stressors contributing to greater stress and Allostatic Load. METHODS Based upon published sources and primary ethnographic case studies, this review examines how GCC, by multiplying climate-related stressors, likely increases social instability, food and water insecurity, and migration. Thereby, it is proposed that GCC contributes to Allostatic Load. RESULTS GCC multiplies stressors on local populations. Those experiencing social insecurity related to GCC during growth and development are expected to show the largest influences on their lifetime Allostatic Load. Similarly, as GCC increases food and water insecurity, it likely will increase Allostatic Load in those affected and is likely to propel migrants to seek improved living circumstances. These stressors may be continued among their descendants via historical trauma or epigenetic responses. CONCLUSION GCC accentuates effects of environmental and sociocultural stressors on human populations. Those exposed to GCC are likely to show lifelong elevated Allostatic Load.

  • EVALUATING Allostatic Load: A NEW APPROACH TO MEASURING LONG-TERM STRESS IN WILDLIFE
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ashley N. Edes, Barbara A. Wolfe, Douglas E. Crews
    Abstract:

    Abstract:  Animal welfare, conservation, and stress assessment are all critical components of species survival. As organisms experience stressors, they accumulate physiologic dysregulation, leading to multiple negative health outcomes. This brief review suggests measuring the degree of stress-induced damage, known as Allostatic Load, and then using Allostatic Load to evaluate changes implemented to improve animal welfare and conservation efforts. Over the past two decades, human clinical research has developed multiple Allostatic Load indices constructed from composites of neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. These indices are designed to estimate Allostatic Load in hopes of ameliorating or even negating damaging effects of stress. Among humans, Allostatic Load is associated with a variety of factors such as age, sex, stressful experiences, personality, social position, and early life history. Despite conservation of stress responses throughout mammalian species, reported allo…

  • The first multi-zoo application of an Allostatic Load index to western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
    General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ashley N. Edes, Barbara A. Wolfe, Douglas E. Crews
    Abstract:

    Abstract Vertebrate stress responses are highly adaptive biological functions, maximizing survival probability in life-threatening situations. However, experiencing repeated and/or chronic stressors can generate physiological dysregulation and lead to disease. Because stress responses are multi-systemic and involve a wide range of physiological functions, identifying responses to stressors is best accomplished using integrated biomarker models. Allostatic Load, defined as the physiological dysregulation that accumulates over the lifespan due to stressful experiences, is one such model. Allostatic Load is measured using Allostatic Load indices, which are composites of biomarkers from multiple somatic systems. Previously, we reported the use of a 7-biomarker Allostatic Load index (albumin, CRH, cortisol, DHEA-S, glucose, IL-6, TNF-α) in western lowland gorillas housed at a single zoo. Herein, this index is expanded to examine Allostatic Load responses to lifetime stressors in gorillas from two additional zoos (n = 63) as well as two pooled samples. The index was created using quartile cut-points for each biomarker. Significant associations were observed between multiple predictor variables and Allostatic Load, including sex, age, number of stressful events (anesthetic events, zoo transfers, agonistic interactions with wounding, pregnancies), and rearing history (mother-reared, nursery-reared, wild-caught). Additionally, Allostatic Load was associated with indicators of morbidity (creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides), age at death, and mortality risk. These results are consistent with those reported in human Allostatic Load research, suggesting Allostatic Load indices have potential as an investigative and clinical tool for gorillas and other great apes.