Allylation - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Allylation

The Experts below are selected from a list of 16512 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Michael J. Krische – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • enantioselective iridium catalyzed carbonyl Allylation from the alcohol oxidation level via transfer hydrogenation minimizing pre activation for synthetic efficiency
    Chemical Communications, 2009
    Co-Authors: Michael J. Krische

    Abstract:

    Existing methods for enantioselective carbonyl Allylation, crotylation and tert-prenylation require stoichiometric generation of pre-metallated nucleophiles, and often employ stoichiometric chiral modifiers. Under the conditions of transfer hydrogenation employing an ortho-cyclometallated iridium C,O-benzoate catalyst, enantioselective carbonyl Allylations, crotylations and tert-prenylations are achieved in the absence of stoichiometric metallic reagents or stoichiometric chiral modifiers. Moreover, under transfer hydrogenation conditions, primary alcohols function dually as hydrogen donors and aldehyde precursors, enabling enantioselective carbonyl addition directly from the alcohol oxidation level.

  • enantioselective Allylation crotylation and reverse prenylation of substituted isatins iridium catalyzed c c bond forming transfer hydrogenation
    Angewandte Chemie, 2009
    Co-Authors: Junji Itoh, Michael J. Krische

    Abstract:

    3-Substituted-3-hydroxy-oxindoles appear as substructures within a fascinating array of natural products, including the convulutamydines,[1a,b] maremycins,[1c,d] donaxaridines,[1e,f] dioxibrassinins,[1g,h,i] celogentin K,[1j] hydroxyglucoisatisins[1k] and TMC-95A–D (Figure 1).[1l] While catalytic asymmetric additions to isatins are known,[2–6] highly enantioselective catalytic Allylation, crotylation and reverse prenylation of isatins has remained elusive. In the course developing hydrogen-mediated C-C couplings beyond hydroformylation,[7–15] chiral ortho-cyclometallated iridium C,O-benzoates were found to catalyze highly enantioselective carbonyl Allylation,[14a,b] crotylation[14c] and reverse prenylation[12d] under transfer hydrogenation conditions. In contrast to classical Allylation procedures that employ stoichiometric organometallic reagents,[16] transfer hydrogenation protocols exploit allyl acetate, α-methyl allyl acetate and 1,1-dimethylallene as precursors to transient allyl-, crotyl- and prenylmetal intermediates, respectively.[12,14a–c] To further evaluate the scope of this emergent methodology, catalytic enantioselective additions to ketones were explored.[17,18] In this account, we report that activated ketones in the form of substituted isatins are subject to highly enantioselective carbonyl Allylation, crotylation and reverse prenylation, constituting a convenient synthesis of optically enriched 3-substituted-3-hydroxy-oxindoles.

    Figure 1

    Examples of naturally occurring 3-substituted-3-hydroxy-oxindoles.

    Our initial studies focused on the asymmetric Allylation of N-benzyl isatin 1a. Using the cyclometallated C,O-benzoate generated in situ from [Ir(cod)Cl]2, BIPHEP and 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoic acid,[14b] the coupling of allyl acetate (1000 mol%) to 1a at 100 °C in THF (0.2 M) delivered the tertiary homoallyl alcohol 2a in 42% isolated yield. Under otherwise identical conditions, but with a lower loading of allyl acetate (200 mol%) and optimization of reaction temperature, reaction time, and concentration, the isolated yield of homoallyl alcohol 2a was increased to 77%. An assay of chelating chiral phosphine ligands was undertaken, which revealed dramatic enhancement in the level of asymmetric induction at lower reaction temperatures. However, lower temperatures also diminished conversion. This impasse was resolved by increasing the loading of isopropanol from 200 mol% to 400 mol%, which enabled conversion of N-benzyl isatin 1a to homoallyl alcohol 2a in 73% isolated yield and 91% enantiomeric excess using CTH-(R)-P-PHOS as ligand. Notably, under analogous conditions employing our initially disclosed iridium catalyst modified by 3-nitrobenzoic acid,[14a,b] 2a is obtained in 61% isolated yield and 90% enantiomeric excess. These data further illustrate how catalyst performance is enhanced through structural variation of the C,O-benzoate moiety. Data pertaining to the optimization of the catalytic enantioselective Allylation of N-benzyl isatin 1a is tabulated in the supporting information.

    Optimal conditions identified for the conversion of N-benzyl isatin 1a to the hydroxy-oxindole 2a were applied to substituted isatins 1a–1g (Table 1). To our delight, the products of ketone Allylation 2a–2g were produced in moderate to excellent isolated yield (65–92% yield) with uniformly high levels of optical enrichment (91–96% ee). The absolute stereochemical assignment of adducts 2a–2g are based upon that determined for the 5-bromo-dervative 2b via single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the anomalous dispersion method.

    Table 1

    Catalytic enantioselective Allylation N-benzyl isatins 1a–1g via iridium catalyzed C-C bond forming transfer hydrogenation.

    Given these favorable results, the crotylation of substituted isatins 1a–1g was attempted under identical conditions employing α-methyl allyl acetate as the crotyl donor (Table 2). The products of ketone crotylation 3a–3g were produced in moderate to excellent isolated yield (64–87% yield) with moderate to excellent levels of optical enrichment (80–92% ee). In general, crotylation required longer reaction times (Table 2, entries 1, 2, 5–7). Additionally, it was found that lower loadings of Cs2CO3 increased conversion in certain cases. The absolute stereochemical assignment of adducts 3a–3g are based upon that determined for the 5-bromo-dervative 3b via single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the anomalous dispersion method.

    Table 2

    Catalytic enantioselective crotylation of N-benzyl isatins 1a–1g via iridium catalyzed C-C bond forming transfer hydrogenation.

    Finally, the reverse prenylation of substituted isatins 1a–1g was attempted (Table 3). To our delight, adducts 4a–4g were generated in uniformly high isolated yields (70–90% yield) and levels of optical enrichment (90–96 % ee) under mild conditions. Notably, this transformation enables creation of two contiguous quaternary carbon centers. The absolute stereochemical assignment of adducts 4a–4g are based upon that determined for the 5-bromo-dervative 4b via single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the anomalous dispersion method. Here, the enantiofacial selectivity of carbonyl addition is opposite to that observed in the case of Allylation and crotylation.

    Table 3

    Catalytic enantioselective prenylation of N-benzyl isatins 1a–1g via iridium catalyzed C-C bond forming transfer hydrogenation.

    The inversion in absolute stereochemistry observed in isatin reverse prenylation merits further explanation. The catalytic mechanism for carbonyl prenylation employing 1,1-dimethylallene is analogous to that previously reported for corresponding Allylations and crotylations (Scheme 1, left).14b,c Assuming isatin crotylation occurs through a chair-like transition structure and an (E)-σ-crotyl iridium intermediate, previously proposed absolute stereochemical models agrees with the observed π-facial selectivity with respect to the crotyl partner.14c The latter observation suggests that isatin crotylation occurs by way of transition structure A, whereas isatin prenylation occurs by way of transition structures B. The basis of this partitioning may arise from non-bonded interactions of the axial methyl group of the σ-prenyl iridium intermediate with the amide π-bond of isatin, which is presumably more destabilizing than non-bonded interactions of the axial methyl group with the electron-deficient rim of the arene (Scheme 1, right).

    Scheme 1

    A simplified catalytic mechanism depicting isatin prenylation via transfer hydrogenation (left) and a plausible stereochemical model accounting for the observed inversion in absolute stereochemistry in the prenylation of isatins (right).a

    In summary, we report the first enantioselective Allylations, crotylations and prenylations of isatin, which are achieved via isopropanol-mediated transfer hydrogenation. Unlike conventional Allylation methodologies that employ stoichiometric quantities of allylmetal reagents, the present method exploits allyl acetate, α-methyl allyl acetate and 1,1-dimethylallene as precursors to transient allyl-, crotyl- and prenylmetal intermediates, respetively.[12,14a–c] To our knowledge, these studies represent the first examples of catalytic enantioselective ketone Allylation, crotylation and prenylation in the absence of stoichiometric allylmetal reagents. Future studies will focus on the development of related C-C bond forming transfer hydrogenations and synthetic applications of the methods reported herein.

  • enantioselective iridium catalyzed carbonyl Allylation from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level using allyl acetate as an allyl metal surrogate
    Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008
    Co-Authors: Mingyu Ngai, Michael J. Krische

    Abstract:

    Protocols for highly enantioselective carbonyl Allylation from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level are described based upon transfer hydrogenative C−C coupling. Exposure of allyl acetate to benzylic alcohols 1a−i in the presence of an iridium catalyst derived from [IrCl(cod)]2 and (R)-BINAP delivers products of C-Allylation 2a−i. Employing isopropanol as terminal reductant, exposure of allyl acetate to aryl aldehydes 3a−i in the presence of an iridium catalyst derived from [IrCl(cod)]2 and (−)-TMBTP delivers identical products of C-Allylation 2a−i. In all cases examined, exception levels of enantioselectivity are observed. Thus, enantioselective carbonyl Allylation is achieved from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level in the absence of any preformed allylmetal reagents. These studies define a departure from preformed organometallic reagents in carbonyl additions that transcend the boundaries of oxidation level.

Anh P Truong – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • synthetic studies on the bryostatins synthetic routes to analogues containing the tricyclic macrolactone core
    Organic Letters, 2005
    Co-Authors: Gary E Keck, Anh P Truong

    Abstract:

    Synthesis of the first of a projected series of bryostatin analogues has been accomplished in 26 steps and 2.2% overall yield. In this letter, we detail two approaches to the structural core of these tricyclic macrolactone bryostatin analogues. The key features of the route include BITIP-catalyzed asymmetric Allylation reactions and Mukaiyama aldol reactions, a chelation-controlled Allylation, pyran annulation reactions, and macrolactonization.

  • synthetic studies on the bryostatins preparation of a truncated bc ring intermediate by pyran annulation
    Organic Letters, 2005
    Co-Authors: Gary E Keck, Anh P Truong

    Abstract:

    A synthesis of a potential BC-ring subunit (C9−C27) for bryostatin 1, a remarkably potent anticancer agent, has been developed in 16 steps and 18% overall yield. The key features of this route include a BITIP-catalyzed asymmetric Allylation reaction, chelation-controlled Allylations, a hydroformylation reaction, and a pyran annulation reaction.

Haeil Park – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • stereoselective protection free asymmetric total synthesis of chamuvarinin a potent anticancer and antitrypanosomal agent substrate controlled construction of the adjacently linked oxatricyclic core by internal alkylation
    Organic Letters, 2018
    Co-Authors: Mallesham Samala, Thien Nhan Lu, Suresh Mandava, Jungjoong Hwang, Ganganna Bogonda, Haeil Park

    Abstract:

    A stereoselective protection-free asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-chamuvarinin (1), a potent anticancer and antitrypanosomal agent, has been accomplished. The adjacently linked [bis(tetrahydrofuran)]tetrahydropyran (THF–THF–THP) core of this natural product with seven stereogenic centers was constructed in a completely substrate-controlled fashion. The inter-ring stereochemistry (threo,threo,threo) of the oxatricyclic core was established in a stereoselective fashion by a chelation-controlled Keck Allylation, whereas the intraring cis or trans relative stereochemistry was controlled by a stereoselective internal alkylation.

  • Stereoselective Protection-Free Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)-Chamuvarinin, a Potent Anticancer and Antitrypanosomal Agent: Substrate-Controlled Construction of the Adjacently Linked Oxatricyclic Core by Internal Alkylation
    Organic Letters, 2018
    Co-Authors: Mallesham Samala, Thien Nhan Lu, Suresh Mandava, Jungjoong Hwang, Ganganna Bogonda, Haeil Park

    Abstract:

    A stereoselective protection-free asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-chamuvarinin (1), a potent anticancer and antitrypanosomal agent, has been accomplished. The adjacently linked [bis(tetrahydrofuran)]tetrahydropyran (THF–THF–THP) core of this natural product with seven stereogenic centers was constructed in a completely substrate-controlled fashion. The inter-ring stereochemistry (threo,threo,threo) of the oxatricyclic core was established in a stereoselective fashion by a chelation-controlled Keck Allylation, whereas the intraring cis or trans relative stereochemistry was controlled by a stereoselective internal alkylation.