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Almond Hulls

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E J Depeters – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • impacts of rumen fluid modified by feeding yucca schidigera to lactating dairy cows on in vitro gas production of 11 common dairy feedstuffs as well as animal performance
    Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2008
    Co-Authors: M D Singer, Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem, P H Robinson, E J Depeters


    The objective was to determine effects of feeding increasing levels of a Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) to dairy cows on 24 h in vitro gas production and 27 h in vitro neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) digestion of 11 common dairy feedstuffs, as well as in vivo rumen fermentation and performance of the cows to which the YSE was fed. The principle was to use YSE to potentially modify the rumen microbial population in vivo and measure subsequent impacts of the adapted rumen fluid on feedstuff fermentation in vitro. Four rumen cannulated late lactation Holstein cows (810 ± 54.7 kg body weight) were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design experiment with 14 d periods. Cows were housed in pens with individual feeding gates and had ad libitum access to water while fed a total mixed ration (TMR) of alfalfa hay, corn grain, barley grain, dried distillers grains, whole cottonseed, beet pulp, soybean meal, Almond Hulls, rumen inert fat and a mineral/salt mixture. Based upon sarsaponin assay of four commercial YSE products, Monterey Sarsaponin 15® was selected and added to the TMR to provide 0, 5, 10 or 15 g of sarsaponin/cow/d. Rumen fluid from each cow in each period was utilized for in vitro gas determinations to measure gas production and aNDFom digestion from the test feeds. There was a strong linear effect (P=0.002), at an increasing rate (quadratic P=0.08), to increased extent of gas production with increased feeding of YSE. There was a quadratic effect to maximum rate of gas production (P=0.01) at the 5 g sarsaponin level. At 4 h of fermentation, gas production increased linearly (P<0.05), at an increasing rate (P<0.002), for Almond Hulls, barley grain and soybean meal with increasing levels of YSE. Gas production from barley grain had a quadratic effect (P<0.01), suggesting a maximum at about the 5 g sarsaponin feeding level. Gas production at 24 h of fermentation increased linearly (P=0.03), at a decreasing rate (P<0.03), but only soybean meal had a quadratic tendency (P=0.08) to minimum gas production at about the 5 g level of sarsaponin. In vitro fermentation of aNDFom at 27 h was not impacted by treatment. In vivo rumen pH, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and rumen protozoal counts were not impacted by YSE feeding level, as were milk production, milk components and net energy (NE) balance. However, correlations between NE output and the proportional increases in 4 h gas production with increasing levels of YSE in the diet suggest that this measure may be predictive of animal responses to this YSE. Finally, multivariate analysis, used to create equations to predict impacts of the nutrients in the 11 feedstuffs on their proportional increase in 4 h gas production, suggests that the increase in 4 h gas production of any feed may be predicted from its organic nutrient profile, offering the potential to determine the optimal feeding level of sarsaponin in any TMR based on its nutrient profile.

  • variability in the chemical composition of seventeen selected by product feedstuffs used by the california dairy industry
    The Professional Animal Scientist, 2000
    Co-Authors: E J Depeters, J G Fadel, M J Arana, N Ohanesian, M A Etchebarne, C A Hamilton, R G Hinders, M D Maloney, T J Riordan, H Perezmonti


    Abstract The objective of this descriptive study was to measure the amount of variability existing in the composition of 17 selected by-product feedstuffs typically used in lactating cow rations in California. Byproduct feedstuffs are important ingredients in the diets of lactating dairy cows in California. Little information exists on the nutrient composition and variability in composition for many by-product feedstuffs. A total of 17 by-product feedstuffs were evaluated in a descriptive study. Samples were obtained from one source for all by-products except Almond Hulls. In most cases, the source from which samples were obtained was also the site generating the individual byproduct feedstuff. Variability in the chemical composition is discussed for each feedstuff individually, but in general the variation was not large. Differences in chemical composition were observed for some by-products compared with previously reported data. The project was a collaborative effort involving the California ARPAS chapter, industry representatives, the California Department of Food and Agriculture, and University of California, Davis.

  • digestion kinetics of neutral detergent fiber and chemical composition within some selected by product feedstuffs
    Animal Feed Science and Technology, 1997
    Co-Authors: E J Depeters, J G Fadel, A Arosemena


    Nine by-product feedstuffs (BPF) obtained from three different sources were evaluated for nutrient composition, estimated nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and TDN content, and total extent and rate of digestion of DM and NDF. The nine BPF evaluated included: beet pulp (BP), rice bran (RB), Almond Hulls (AI-I), citrus pulp (CT), bakery waste (BW), wheat mill run (WMR), brewers’ grains (BG), distillery grains (DG) and soy Hulls (SH). Twenty-seven samples were evaluated and were a subset of a larger study reported previously. In sacco techniques were used to measure the amount of NDF and DM remaining in nylon bags after 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of incubation in the rumen of a rumen listulated cow. Chemical analyses measured included ash, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and crude protein in the NDF (NDFCP) and ADF (ADFCP) fractions. Chemical composition differed among BPF source. This difference could be due to processing method or ingredients added to BPF during processing. The amount of CP associated with the NDF fraction varied among sources of each BPF. The amount of NDFCP also differed for each BPF. The NDFCP content of CT, O&l%, was low compared with DG, 14.5%, which was high compared with the other BPF evaluated. Correcting for the fiber-bound protein increased the estimate of NSC slightly for most BPF, but the NSC content of DG was increased 88%. The results indicate a correction for NDFCP is necessary for an accurate estimation of NSC in BPF. Within a given BPF, the extent and rate of digestion of NDF were different for each source. The TDN content of each sample was calculated using the rate of in sacco NDF digestion for each BPF at three theoretical rates of passage from

William J Orts – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from Almond Hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015
    Co-Authors: Kevin M Holtman, Richard D Offeman, Diana Franquivillanueva, Andre K Bayati, William J Orts


    : Almond Hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t Hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable.

  • leaching behavior of water soluble carbohydrates from Almond Hulls
    Industrial Crops and Products, 2015
    Co-Authors: Richard D Offeman, Kevin M Holtman, William J Orts


    Abstract Over 58% of the dry matter content of the Hulls from the commercial Almond ( Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50–70 °C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbitol), polysaccharides, and other components. Extraction rate data were taken over a range of temperatures and particle sizes (including whole Hulls). Equilibrium concentrations and liquid retention data were taken over a wide solubles concentration range, enabling use of a standard leaching model for the calculation of stage-to-stage concentrations and flows in an ideal countercurrent extractor. The relations between recovery, product concentration, number of ideal stages, and ratio of solvent-to-feed were determined using the model. The data indicate that a solutes concentration of 18–20% dry matter in the concentrate liquid is attainable. Due to the nature of the native Hulls to preferentially absorb water from dilute solutions, initial contact of Hulls with the overhead liquid concentrate (if well below ∼18% solutes) may result in a significant enhancement of overhead concentration.

  • Almond Hulls as a biofuels feedstock variations in carbohydrates by variety and location in california
    Industrial Crops and Products, 2014
    Co-Authors: Richard D Offeman, Kevin M Holtman, Kelly M Covello, William J Orts


    Abstract Hulls of the Almond ( Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) have a high content of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), and are a potential feedstock for biofuels and other uses. The state of California in the United States produces the majority of the world’s Almonds. Six Almond varieties across seven counties in California were studied to assess the amount and variability of sugars and sugar alcohols in the Hulls. Previous studies were done over 30 years ago, and don’t reflect the current range of varieties and locations. Fermentable sugars ranged from 25 to 33% of the dry weight of the Hulls portion of the samples. The “as is” samples contain shells, twigs and other materials that can dilute the concentration of sugars; the Butte and Padre varieties have much higher amounts of shell than the other varieties studied. The Nonpareil variety has the highest fermentable sugars content at an average of 271 kg per tonne of “as is” Hulls. Average theoretical ethanol yields ranged from 176 to 130 L/tonne, depending on variety. Finding an economic outlet for the wet, spent Hulls is a concern.

Chitang Ho – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • new type sesquiterpene lactone from Almond Hulls prunus amygdalus batsch
    Tetrahedron Letters, 2002
    Co-Authors: Shengmin Sang, Karen Lapsley, Robert T Rosen, Xiaofang Cheng, Huiyin Fu, Denen Shieh, Ruth E Stark, Chitang Ho


    Abstract A new unusual sesquiterpene lactone, named amygdalactone, was isolated from the Hulls of Almond ( Prunus amygdalus ). Complete assignment of the proton and carbon chemical shifts for the new lactone was accomplished on the basis of high-resolution 1D and 2D NMR data. Amygdalactone represents a new class of sesquiterpene with cyclohexa[7,12- g ]octalactone ring system. The cytotoxic activity of amygdalactone was determined.

  • new prenylated benzoic acid and other constituents from Almond Hulls prunus amygdalus batsch
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002
    Co-Authors: Shengmin Sang, Karen Lapsley, Robert T Rosen, Chitang Ho


    One new prenylated benzoic acid derivative, 3-prenyl-4-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxylbenzoic acid, and three known constituents, catechin, protocatechuic acid, and ursolic acid, have been isolated from the Hulls of Almond (Prunus amygdalus). Complete assignments of the proton and carbon chemical shifts for the new prenylated benzoic acid derivative were accomplished on the basis of high-resolution 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance data. All of these compounds except ursolic acid are being reported from Almond Hulls (P. amygdalus) for the first time. Keywords: Almond Hulls; Prunus amygdalus; prenylated benzoic acid derivative