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Alternate Day Fasting

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Krista A. Varady – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Changes in Body Weight in Relation to Appetite During 6 Months of Alternate Day Fasting with a Low Carbohydrate Diet
    Current Developments in Nutrition, 2020
    Co-Authors: Faiza Kalam, Kelsey Gabel, Sofia Cienfuegos, Mark Ezpeleta, Vasiliki Pavlou, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    Abstract

    Objectives
    Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) has been shown to lower body weight and improve subjective appetite by increasing fullness over time. What remains unknown, however, is whether carbohydrate restriction during ADF would provide additional weight loss benefits by helping to lower hunger as well. Accordingly, this study examined the effect of 6-months of ADF combined with a low carbohydrate diet on Fasting and postprandial appetite ratings. The relationship between changes in appetite and body weight was also examined.

    Methods
    Adults with obesity (n = 31) participated in ADF (600 kcal “fast DayAlternated with an ad libitum “feast Day”) with a low-carbohydrate background diet (30% carbohydrates, 35% protein, and 35% fat). The 6-month trial consisted of a 3- month weight loss period followed by a 3-month weight maintenance period.

    Results
    Body weight (P < 0.001) decreased by 5.5 ± 0.5% by month 3 (end of weight loss period) and by 6.3 ± 1.0% by month 6 (end of weight maintenance period). Subjective hunger and fullness did not change during the weight loss period, or the weight maintenance period. Hunger and fullness were not related to changes in body weight during the weight loss or weight maintenance periods. Fasting insulin decreased (P = 0.03) by − 24 ± 8% by month 6 relative to baseline. Fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), remained unchanged over the course of the study.

    Conclusions
    These findings suggest that ADF combined with a low carbohydrate diet is an effective way of lowering body weight. However, these weight loss benefits are not related to improvements in hunger or fullness.

    Funding Sources
    Nestle Health Sciences.

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  • Does the weight loss efficacy of Alternate Day Fasting differ according to sex and menopausal status
    Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 2020
    Co-Authors: Shuhao Lin, Faiza Kalam, Kelsey Gabel, Surabhi Bhutani, Sofia Cienfuegos, Manoela Lima Oliveira, Mark Ezpeleta, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background and aims This study examined if the weight loss and metabolic benefits of Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) varies according to sex and menopausal status in adults with obesity. Methods and results This secondary analysis pooled the data of men and women (n = 75) who participated in three 12-week ADF studies (500 kcal fast Day; Alternated with an ad libitum intake feast Day). Body weight decreased in premenopausal women (-4.6 ± 3.2%), postmenopausal women (-6.5 ± 3.2%) and men (-6.2 ± 4.4%) (main effect of time, P Conclusion These findings suggest that the weight loss and metabolic benefits of ADF do not generally vary according to sex or menopausal status in adults with obesity. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00960505; NCT03528317.

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  • Changes in subjective measures of appetite during 6 months of Alternate Day Fasting with a low carbohydrate diet
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 2020
    Co-Authors: Faiza Kalam, Kelsey Gabel, Eric Wiseman, Sofia Cienfuegos, Mark Ezpeleta, Vasiliki Pavlou, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    Summary Objective Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) has been shown to lower body weight and improve subjective appetite by increasing fullness. What remains unknown, however, is whether carbohydrate restriction during ADF would provide additional weight loss benefits by helping to lower hunger as well. Accordingly, this study examined the effect of 6-months of ADF combined with a low carbohydrate diet on Fasting and postprandial appetite ratings. Methods Adults with obesity (n = 31) participated in ADF (600 kcal “fast DayAlternated with an ad libitum “feast Day”) with a low-carbohydrate background diet (30% carbohydrates, 35% protein, and 35% fat). The 6-month trial consisted of a 3-month weight loss period followed by a 3-month weight maintenance period. Results After 6-months of an ADF-low carbohydrate diet, body weight decreased (P  Conclusions These findings suggest that ADF combined with a low carbohydrate diet is not associated with any changes in appetite, relative to baseline. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03528317.

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Cynthia M. Kroeger – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Weight loss efficacy of Alternate Day Fasting versus daily calorie restriction in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: a secondary analysis.
    Applied physiology nutrition and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee nutrition et metabolisme, 2019
    Co-Authors: Rand T. Akasheh, Faiza Kalam, Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K. Hoddy, Cynthia M. Kroeger, John F. Trepanowski, Sofia Cienfuegos, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    This study compared the weight loss efficacy of AlternateDay Fasting (ADF) versus daily calorie restriction (CR) in adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. After 6 months, body weight decreased (P < 0.001) similarly by ADF (-7% ± 1%) and CR (-8% ± 2%). Insulin resistance decreased (P < 0.05) more by ADF versus CR. Free thyroxin and thyroid-stimulating hormone remained unchanged. Thus, ADF and CR produce similar weight loss in this population, without affecting thyroid hormone levels. Novelty Intermittent Fasting and daily restriction produce similar reductions in body weight in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism.

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  • differential effects of Alternate Day Fasting versus daily calorie restriction on insulin resistance
    Obesity, 2019
    Co-Authors: Kelsey Gabel, Faiza Kalam, Kristin K. Hoddy, Cynthia M. Kroeger, John F. Trepanowski, Sofia Cienfuegos, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE This study compared the effects of AlternateDay Fasting (ADF) with those of daily calorie restriction (CR) on body weight and glucoregulatory factors in adults with overweight or obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS This secondary analysis examined the data of insulin-resistant individuals (n = 43) who participated in a 12-month study that compared ADF (25% energy needs on “fast Days”; 125% energy needs on alternating “feast Days”) with CR (75% energy needs every Day) and a control group regimen. RESULTS In insulin-resistant participants, weight loss was not different between ADF (-8% ± 2%) and CR (-6% ± 1%) by month 12, relative to controls (P < 0.0001). Fat mass and BMI decreased (P < 0.05) similarly from ADF and CR. ADF produced greater decreases (P < 0.05) in Fasting insulin (-52% ± 9%) and insulin resistance (-53% ± 9%) compared with CR (-14% ± 9%; -17% ± 11%) and the control regimen by month 12. Lean mass, visceral fat mass, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 values remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that ADF may produce greater reductions in Fasting insulin and insulin resistance compared with CR in insulin-resistant participants despite similar decreases in body weight.

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  • Differential Effects of AlternateDay Fasting Versus Daily Calorie Restriction on Insulin Resistance.
    Obesity (Silver Spring Md.), 2019
    Co-Authors: Kelsey Gabel, Faiza Kalam, Kristin K. Hoddy, Cynthia M. Kroeger, John F. Trepanowski, Sofia Cienfuegos, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE This study compared the effects of AlternateDay Fasting (ADF) with those of daily calorie restriction (CR) on body weight and glucoregulatory factors in adults with overweight or obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS This secondary analysis examined the data of insulin-resistant individuals (n = 43) who participated in a 12-month study that compared ADF (25% energy needs on “fast Days”; 125% energy needs on alternating “feast Days”) with CR (75% energy needs every Day) and a control group regimen. RESULTS In insulin-resistant participants, weight loss was not different between ADF (-8% ± 2%) and CR (-6% ± 1%) by month 12, relative to controls (P 

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Krista A. Varady – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Safety and efficacy of Alternate Day Fasting
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Krista A. Varady, Kelsey Gabel

    Abstract:

    Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) has gained considerable popularity as a weight loss intervention. A new study provides data showing that zero-calorie ADF (defined as 36-hour water fast alternating with 12-hour feast) is a safe and effective intervention to lower body weight and metabolic disease risk in participants who did not have obesity.

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  • Alternate Day Fasting Combined with a High Protein/low Carbohydrate Diet: Effect on Body Weight and Metabolic Disease Risk Factors in Obese Adults (P21-018-19)
    Current Developments in Nutrition, 2019
    Co-Authors: Faiza Kalam, Kelsey Gabel, Eric Wiseman, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    Abstract

    Objectives
    This pilot study is the first to examine the impact of Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) combined with a high protein/low carbohydrate diet on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults.

    Methods
    Obese adults (n = 10) followed an ADF diet (600 kcal fast Day Alternated with an ad libitum feast Day; 35% protein, 22% carbohydrate, 43% fat) for 6 months. Meal replacements were consumed on the fast and feast Days, in addition to regular foods, to help attain macronutrient targets.

    Results
    Body weight decreased (P < 0.001) by 8.4 ± 1.7 kg (8.6 ± 1.7%) after 6 months. Fat mass and visceral fat mass were reduced (P < 0.05) by 6.4 ± 1.6 kg and 0.2 ± 0.1 kg, respectively. Lean mass decreased (P < 0.05) by 1.3 ± 0.6 kg. Systolic blood pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) by 10 ± 3 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) by 6 ± 3 mm Hg. Fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and HbA1c remained unchanged after 6 months of diet. LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased (P < 0.001) by10 ± 4% and 15 ± 8%, respectively, after 6 months. HDL cholesterol levels decreased by 6 ± 3% from baseline to post-treatment.

    Conclusions
    These preliminary findings suggest that ADF combined with a high protein/low carbohydrate diet is effective for lowering body weight, visceral fat mass, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. However, this diet has no effect on glucoregulatory factors. While these preliminary findings are promising, they still require confirmation by a larger-scale clinical trial.

    Funding Sources
    Nestle Health Sciences Grant.

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  • Effects of AlternateDay Fasting or daily calorie restriction on body composition, fat distribution, and circulating adipokines: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
    Clinical Nutrition, 2018
    Co-Authors: John F. Trepanowski, Eric Ravussin, Kristin K. Hoddy, Cynthia M. Kroeger, Adrienne Barnosky, Surabhi Bhutani, Monica C. Klempel, Jennifer Rood, Krista A. Varady

    Abstract:

    Summary Background & aims Indirect comparisons suggest that AlternateDay Fasting (ADF) may produce greater improvements in body composition, fat distribution, and/or the adipokine profile compared to daily calorie restriction (CR), but this has not been tested directly. In a pre-planned secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, we compared changes in the VAT:SAT ratio, FFM:total mass ratio, and the adipokine profile between ADF and CR. Methods Overweight and obese participants ( n  = 100) were randomized to 1) ADF (alternating every 24-h between consuming 25% or 125% of energy needs); 2) CR (consuming 75% of needs every Day); or 3) control (consuming 100% of needs every Day) for 24 wk. Results The VAT:SAT ratio did not change in any group. The FFM:total mass ratio increased in both ADF (0.03 ± 0.00) and CR (0.03 ± 0.01) compared to the control group ( P P Conclusion ADF and CR similarly improve the FFM:total mass ratio and reduce leptin after a 24-wk intervention. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov , number NCT00960505 .

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