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Animal Genetic Resources

The Experts below are selected from a list of 2172 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Simon Anderson – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Property rights and the management of Animal Genetic Resources: how to secure access to drylands Resources for multiple users
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Simon Anderson, Roberta Centose

    Abstract:

    Genetic erosion in Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) is of concern where livelihoods of the poor are affected and option values for society are being lost. The poor often live in marginal areas and their livestock maintain adaptive characteristics. However, processes leading to Genetic erosion do not precipitate adaptation through natural selection. This paper explores how local property rights systems in poor communities for AnGR are organized. The dynamism and dialectical aspects of these systems are considered and the impact of their breakdown assessed in terms of AnGR diversity. The conservation of AnGR option values through livestock husbandry by the poor is a hitherto unrecognized and unrewarded service to society.” Author’s Abstract

  • property rights and the management of Animal Genetic Resources
    World Development, 2007
    Co-Authors: Simon Anderson, Roberta Centonze

    Abstract:

    Summary Genetic erosion in Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) is of concern where livelihoods of the poor are affected and option values for society are being lost. The poor often live in marginal areas and their livestock maintain adaptive characteristics. However, processes leading to Genetic erosion do not precipitate adaptation through natural selection. This paper explores how local property rights systems in poor communities for AnGR are organized. The dynamism and dialectical aspects of these systems are considered and the impact of their breakdown is assessed in terms of AnGR diversity. The conservation of AnGR option values through livestock husbandry by the poor is a hitherto unrecognized and unrewarded service to society.

  • economic analysis of Animal Genetic Resources and the use of rural appraisal methods lessons from southeast mexico
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 2004
    Co-Authors: A G Drucker, Simon Anderson

    Abstract:

    Livestock diversity provides Genetic alternatives that facilitate sustainable agricultural development. Despite this, Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) are being depleted at alarming rates. Subsidises available to production systems based on imported breeds are of several orders of magnitude greater than the costs of local breed conservation. Economic arguments for the conservation and sustainable use of threatened AnGR can be an effective means of establishing support for the development of appropriate enabling environments. Despite the importance of the economics of AnGR conservation, the subject has received limited attention. Reasons include: methodological difficulties inherent in valuing Genetic Resources; limited knowledge about appropriate analytical techniques; and lack of data regarding local breeds. As recent advances in economic valuation have eased methodological/analytical constraints, the issue of data availability has become critical. Data related to livestock keepers’ preferences for differ…

Irene Hoffmann – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources.
    Animal genetics, 2020
    Co-Authors: Irene Hoffmann

    Abstract:

    Livestock production both contributes to and is affected by climate change. In addition to the physiological effects of higher temperatures on individual Animals, the consequences of climate change are likely to include increased risk that geographically restricted rare breed populations will be badly affected by disturbances. Indirect effects may be felt via ecosystem changes that alter the distribution of Animal diseases or affect the supply of feed. Breeding goals may have to be adjusted to account for higher temperatures, lower quality diets and greater disease challenge. Species and breeds that are well adapted to such conditions may become more widely used. Climate change mitigation strategies, in combination with ever increasing demand for food, may also have an impact on breed and species utilization, driving a shift towards monogastrics and breeds that are efficient converters of feed into meat, milk and eggs. This may lead to the neglect of the adaptation potential of local breeds in developing countries. Given the potential for significant future changes in production conditions and in the objectives of livestock production, it is essential that the value provided by Animal Genetic diversity is secured. This requires better characterization of breeds, production environments and associated knowledge; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to Genetic diversity; more effective in situ and ex situ conservation measures; Genetic improvement programmes targeting adaptive traits in high-output and performance traits in locally adapted breeds; increased support for developing countries in their management of Animal Genetic Resources; and wider access to Genetic Resources and associated knowledge.

  • Animal Genetic Resources diversity and ecosystem services
    Global Food Security, 2018
    Co-Authors: Gregoire Leroy, P Boettcher, R Baumung, Badi Besbes, Tatiana From, Irene Hoffmann

    Abstract:

    Abstract Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) are a component of agricultural biodiversity making a large contribution to ecosystem services, resulting from their complex interaction with their respective environments. This review investigates how AnGR diversity, which includes more than 7000 distinct local and 1000 transboundary livestock breeds of around 40 species plus domesticated honeybees and other pollinators, influences, through livestock production systems and practices, the generation of a diversity of provisioning, regulating and maintenance, as well as cultural ecosystem services. The main use of domestic Animals is for their provisional services of food production, with a large contribution from commercial breeds in industrial production systems in developed and emerging countries. However, in rural areas of developing countries, local livestock breeds often play a crucial role in food security, nutrition and health. Less intensive systems, located especially in harsh climate conditions, offer more diverse ecosystem services, including important regulating and maintenance services, with indirect use or non-use values, while permitting the use of land not suitable for crop production. Breeds used in such systems have often developed specific adaptive features for those environments. The identification and integration of traits relevant for ecosystem services within breeding programmes represent however a particular challenge, especially in low-input systems. The keepers of the livestock that offer these services are often marginalised and isolated from markets and excluded from decision making processes, however. It is therefore important to recognize the existence and value of these ecosystem services to better understand the trade-offs and synergies associated with their maintenance, and to account for them in policy and legal frameworks at national and international levels including providing appropriate incentives to the communities contributing to the generation of those services.

  • factors and determinants of Animal Genetic Resources management activities across the world
    Livestock Science, 2016
    Co-Authors: Gregoire Leroy, P Boettcher, Irene Hoffmann, Dafydd Pilling, R Baumung, Badi Besbes, B D Scherf

    Abstract:

    Abstract This paper investigates the factors affecting the implementation of various management activities related to the characterization, use and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) across countries. The 128 official country reports provided for The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture were analysed based on a multivariate approach. These reports investigated topics related the national level of AnGR diversity, the extent of characterization activities, use and breeding programmes and conservation activities, as well as capacities in AnGR management and the use of biotechnologies related to livestock breeding. A large part of the variability (34.7%) of the dataset could be explained by one synthetic variable, which could be interpreted as the general extent of AnGR related activities, and indicate that country efforts on AnGR are directed relatively homogenously towards the various activities and species considered. This variable differentiated mainly OECD and BRICS countries from less developed ones. OECD and BRICS countries also appeared to be differentiated with respect to the use of some specific biotechnologies such as cloning, Genetic modification and transplantation of gonadal tissues. With regards to economic and development indicators, the first synthetic variable showed large correlation with the number of researchers in agricultural sciences per inhabitant ( r =0.643) and national GDP (r=0.516). Capacities in research therefore appeared to be one of the main enabling forces for activities related to AnGR and the implementation of the Global Plan of Action (GPA) for AnGR.

Roberta Centonze – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • property rights and the management of Animal Genetic Resources
    World Development, 2007
    Co-Authors: Simon Anderson, Roberta Centonze

    Abstract:

    Summary Genetic erosion in Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) is of concern where livelihoods of the poor are affected and option values for society are being lost. The poor often live in marginal areas and their livestock maintain adaptive characteristics. However, processes leading to Genetic erosion do not precipitate adaptation through natural selection. This paper explores how local property rights systems in poor communities for AnGR are organized. The dynamism and dialectical aspects of these systems are considered and the impact of their breakdown is assessed in terms of AnGR diversity. The conservation of AnGR option values through livestock husbandry by the poor is a hitherto unrecognized and unrewarded service to society.