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Animal Manures

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Thomas J Sims – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • phosphorus leaching in soils amended with Animal Manures generated from modified diets
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2016
    Co-Authors: Gurpal S Toor, Thomas J Sims

    Abstract:

    : New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in Manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of Manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy Manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (<30%) in dairy Manures or broiler litters resulted in lower DRP leaching from soils. Preferential flow in two soils caused greater DRP leaching; this effect was more pronounced in the superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in Manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils.

  • comparison of phosphorus forms in wet and dried Animal Manures by solution phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enzymatic hydrolysis
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2007
    Co-Authors: Zhongqi He, Wayne C Honeycutt, Barbara J Cademenun, Gurpal S Toor, Annmarie Fortuna, Thomas J Sims

    Abstract:

    Both enzymatic hydrolysis and solution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been used to characterize P compounds in Animal Manures. In this study, we comparatively investigated P forms in 0.25 M NaOH/0.05 M EDTA extracts of dairy and poultry Manures by the two methods. For the dairy manure, enzymatic hydrolysis revealed that the majority of extracted P was inorganic P (56%), with 10% phytate-like P, 9% simple monoester P, 6% polynucleotidelike P, and 18% non-hydrolyzable P. Similar results were obtained by NMR spectroscopy, which showed that inorganic P was the major P fraction (64–73%), followed by 6% phytic acid, 14 to 22% other monoesters, and 7% phosphodiesters. In the poultry manure, enzymatic hydrolysis showed that inorganic P was the largest fraction (71%), followed by 15% phytate-like P and 1% other monoesters, and 3% polynucleotide-like P. NMR spectroscopy revealed that orthophosphate was 51 to 63% of extracted P, phytic acid 24 to 33%, other phosphomonoesters 6 to 12%, and phospholipids and DNA 2% each. Drying process increased orthophosphate (8.4% of total P) in dairy manure, but decreased orthophosphate (13.3% of total P) in poultry manure, suggesting that drying treatment caused the hydrolysis of some organic P to orthophosphate in dairy manure, but less recovery of orthophosphate in poultry manure. Comparison of these data indicates that the distribution patterns of major P forms in Animal manure determined by the two methods were similar. Researchers can utilize the method that best fits their specific research goals or use both methods to obtain a full spectrum of manure P characterization.

Benjamin L Turner – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • phosphorus compounds in sequential extracts of Animal Manures chemical speciation and a novel fractionation procedure
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Benjamin L Turner, April B Leytem

    Abstract:

    Pollution of water bodies by phosphorus in runoff from soil amended with Animal Manures is one of the greatest threats to water quality in developed countries. The environmental fate of manure phosphorus is determined in part by its chemical composition, yet extraction procedures to assess this are poorly developed and provide no structural information. We used solution 31 P NMR spectroscopy to quantify phosphorus compounds in sequential extracts of three contrasting Manures (broiler litter, beef-cattle manure, swine manure ► . Using a procedure originally developed for soils, but commonly applied to Manures, phosphorus was extracted sequentially with deionized water, 0.5 M NaHCO 3, 0.1 M NaOH, and 0.5 M HCI. Water and NaHCO 3 extracted readilysoluble compounds, including phosphate, phospholipids, DNA, and simple phosphate monoesters, which are mobile in soil and biologically available. In contrast, NaOH and HCI extracted poorly soluble compounds, including phytic acid (myoinositol hexakisphosphate ► . The latter is immobile in soil and of limited biological availability. Based on these results, we developed a simplified two-step fractionation procedure involving extraction of readily soluble phosphorus in 0.5 M NaHCO 3 followed by extraction of stable phosphorus in a solution containing 0.5 M NaOH and 50 mM EDTA. This revised procedure separates manure phosphorus into structurally defined fractions with environmental relevance and will facilitate research on this important aspect of environmental science.

  • optimizing phosphorus characterization in Animal Manures by solution phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2004
    Co-Authors: Benjamin L Turner

    Abstract:

    A procedure involving alkaline extraction and solution 31P nuclear
    magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was developed and optimized
    for the characterization of P in Animal Manures (broiler, swine,
    beef cattle). Inclusion of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in
    the alkaline extraction solution recovered between 82 and 97% of
    the total P from the three Manures, which represented a significant
    improvement on recovery in NaOH alone. Low concentrations of
    paramagnetic ions in all manure extracts meant that relatively long
    delay times (>5 s) were required for quantitative analysis by solution
    31P NMR spectroscopy. The Manures contained inorganic orthophosphate,
    orthophosphate monoesters, orthophosphate diesters, and inorganic
    polyphosphates, but results were markedly influenced by the
    concentration of NaOH in the extractant, which affected both spectral
    resolution and the apparent P composition of the extracts. For example,
    extraction of swine manure and broiler litter with 0.5 M NaOH +
    50 mM EDTA produced remarkable spectral resolution that allowed
    accurate quantification of the four signals from phytic acid, the major
    organic P compound in these Manures. In contrast, more dilute NaOH
    concentrations produced considerable line broadening that obscured
    individual signals in the orthophosphate monoester region of the
    spectra. Spectral resolution of cattle manure extracts was relatively
    unaffected by NaOH concentration. Improvements in spectral resolution
    of more concentrated NaOH extracts were, however, compromised
    by the disappearance of phospholipids and inorganic polyphosphates,
    notably in swine and cattle manure extracts, which indicated
    either degradation or a change in solubility. The optimum extraction
    conditions will therefore vary depending on the manure type and the
    objectives of the study. Phytic acid can be accurately quantified in
    swine manure and broiler litter by extraction with 0.5 M NaOH +
    50 mM EDTA, while a more dilute NaOH concentration should be
    used for complete P characterization or comparison among different
    manure types.

Gurpal S Toor – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • phosphorus leaching in soils amended with Animal Manures generated from modified diets
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2016
    Co-Authors: Gurpal S Toor, Thomas J Sims

    Abstract:

    : New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in Manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of Manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy Manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (<30%) in dairy Manures or broiler litters resulted in lower DRP leaching from soils. Preferential flow in two soils caused greater DRP leaching; this effect was more pronounced in the superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in Manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils.

  • changes in heavy metal contents in Animal feeds and Manures in an intensive Animal production region of china
    Journal of Environmental Sciences-china, 2013
    Co-Authors: Hui Wang, Yuanhua Dong, Gurpal S Toor, Yunya Yang, Xumei Zhang

    Abstract:

    Abstract The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 Animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in Animal feeds were 15.9–2041.8 and undetected–392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in Animal Manures were 8.4–1726, 39.5–11379, and 1.0–1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were

  • comparison of phosphorus forms in wet and dried Animal Manures by solution phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enzymatic hydrolysis
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2007
    Co-Authors: Zhongqi He, Wayne C Honeycutt, Barbara J Cademenun, Gurpal S Toor, Annmarie Fortuna, Thomas J Sims

    Abstract:

    Both enzymatic hydrolysis and solution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been used to characterize P compounds in Animal Manures. In this study, we comparatively investigated P forms in 0.25 M NaOH/0.05 M EDTA extracts of dairy and poultry Manures by the two methods. For the dairy manure, enzymatic hydrolysis revealed that the majority of extracted P was inorganic P (56%), with 10% phytate-like P, 9% simple monoester P, 6% polynucleotidelike P, and 18% non-hydrolyzable P. Similar results were obtained by NMR spectroscopy, which showed that inorganic P was the major P fraction (64–73%), followed by 6% phytic acid, 14 to 22% other monoesters, and 7% phosphodiesters. In the poultry manure, enzymatic hydrolysis showed that inorganic P was the largest fraction (71%), followed by 15% phytate-like P and 1% other monoesters, and 3% polynucleotide-like P. NMR spectroscopy revealed that orthophosphate was 51 to 63% of extracted P, phytic acid 24 to 33%, other phosphomonoesters 6 to 12%, and phospholipids and DNA 2% each. Drying process increased orthophosphate (8.4% of total P) in dairy manure, but decreased orthophosphate (13.3% of total P) in poultry manure, suggesting that drying treatment caused the hydrolysis of some organic P to orthophosphate in dairy manure, but less recovery of orthophosphate in poultry manure. Comparison of these data indicates that the distribution patterns of major P forms in Animal manure determined by the two methods were similar. Researchers can utilize the method that best fits their specific research goals or use both methods to obtain a full spectrum of manure P characterization.