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Chad T. Jafvert – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Hormone loads exported by a tile-drained agroecosystem receiving Animal Wastes
    Hydrological Processes, 2013
    Co-Authors: Heather E. Gall, Stephen A. Sassman, Byron Jenkinson, Chad T. Jafvert

    Abstract:

    Little is known regarding hormone export from tile-drained agricultural fields despite the widespread presence of tile drains in the Midwestern United States. By intensively measuring water flow rates and hormone concentrations in four subsurface tile drains and three receiving ditches at a working Midwest farm, hormone fluxes and loads from the tile-drained fields were quantified. Before and during the 17-month study period (January 2009 – May 2010), the associated farm fields received various Animal waste applications (beef, dairy, poultry, sheep, and swine). Hormones monitored included the estrogens17β- and 17α-estradiol, estrone, and estriol; the natural androgens testosterone, and androstenedione; and the synthetic androgens 17β- and 17α-trenbolone, and trendione. Hormone loads measured in the ditches for three drainage areas during the entire 17-month study period were in ranges of 16–58 mg/ha for total estrogens, 6.8–19 mg/ha for natural androgens, and 4.2–44 mg/ha for synthetic androgens. Because higher hormone concentrations generally occurred during discrete periods of increased flow, high flow rates often were associated with a disproportionately high hormone flux. For example, 80% of total estrogens and natural androgens exported into the ditches occurred during only 9–26% of the study period, coinciding with the most significant storm events. In addition, hormone fluxes were highest during storm events that occurred shortly after Animal waste applications. Therefore, to effectively reduce hormone loads exported to downstream aquatic ecosystems in the absence of any application reduction, the short periods during which high-flow events occur must be targeted. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Hormone Discharges from a Midwest Tile-Drained Agroecosystem Receiving Animal Wastes
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Heather E. Gall, Stephen A. Sassman, Chad T. Jafvert

    Abstract:

    Manure is increasingly being viewed as a threat to aquatic ecosystems due to the introduction of natural and synthetic hormones from land application to agricultural fields. In the Midwestern United States, where most agricultural fields are tile-drained, there is little known about hormone release from fields receiving Animal Wastes. To this end, seven sampling stations (four in subsurface tile drains and three in the receiving ditch network) were installed at a Midwest farm where various types of Animal Wastes (beef, dairy, and poultry lagoon effluent, dairy solids, and subsurface injection of swine manure) are applied to agricultural fields. Water flow was continuously monitored and samples were collected for hormone analysis during storm events and baseline flow for a 15 month study period. The compounds analyzed included the natural hormones 17α- and 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, testosterone, and androstenedione and the synthetic androgens 17α- and 17β-trenbolone and trendione. Hormones were dete…

  • hormone discharges from a midwest tile drained agroecosystem receiving Animal Wastes
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Heather E. Gall, Stephen A. Sassman, Linda S Lee, Chad T. Jafvert

    Abstract:

    Manure is increasingly being viewed as a threat to aquatic ecosystems due to the introduction of natural and synthetic hormones from land application to agricultural fields. In the Midwestern United States, where most agricultural fields are tile-drained, there is little known about hormone release from fields receiving Animal Wastes. To this end, seven sampling stations (four in subsurface tile drains and three in the receiving ditch network) were installed at a Midwest farm where various types of Animal Wastes (beef, dairy, and poultry lagoon effluent, dairy solids, and subsurface injection of swine manure) are applied to agricultural fields. Water flow was continuously monitored and samples were collected for hormone analysis during storm events and baseline flow for a 15 month study period. The compounds analyzed included the natural hormones 17α- and 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, testosterone, and androstenedione and the synthetic androgens 17α- and 17β-trenbolone and trendione. Hormones were detected in at least 64% of the samples collected at each station, with estrone being detected the most frequently and estriol the least. Testosterone and androstendione were detected more frequently than synthetic androgens, which were detected in fewer than 15% of samples. Hormone concentrations in subsurface tile drains increased during effluent irrigation and storm events. Hormones also appeared to persist over the winter, with increased concentrations coinciding with early thaws and snowmelt from fields amended with manure solids. The highest concentration of synthetic androgens (168 ng/L) observed coincided with a snowmelt. The highest concentrations of hormones in the ditch waters (87 ng/L for total estrogens and 52 ng/L for natural androgens) were observed in June, which coincides with the early life stage development period of many aquatic species in the Midwest.

Heather E. Gall – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Hormone loads exported by a tile-drained agroecosystem receiving Animal Wastes
    Hydrological Processes, 2013
    Co-Authors: Heather E. Gall, Stephen A. Sassman, Byron Jenkinson, Chad T. Jafvert

    Abstract:

    Little is known regarding hormone export from tile-drained agricultural fields despite the widespread presence of tile drains in the Midwestern United States. By intensively measuring water flow rates and hormone concentrations in four subsurface tile drains and three receiving ditches at a working Midwest farm, hormone fluxes and loads from the tile-drained fields were quantified. Before and during the 17-month study period (January 2009 – May 2010), the associated farm fields received various Animal waste applications (beef, dairy, poultry, sheep, and swine). Hormones monitored included the estrogens17β- and 17α-estradiol, estrone, and estriol; the natural androgens testosterone, and androstenedione; and the synthetic androgens 17β- and 17α-trenbolone, and trendione. Hormone loads measured in the ditches for three drainage areas during the entire 17-month study period were in ranges of 16–58 mg/ha for total estrogens, 6.8–19 mg/ha for natural androgens, and 4.2–44 mg/ha for synthetic androgens. Because higher hormone concentrations generally occurred during discrete periods of increased flow, high flow rates often were associated with a disproportionately high hormone flux. For example, 80% of total estrogens and natural androgens exported into the ditches occurred during only 9–26% of the study period, coinciding with the most significant storm events. In addition, hormone fluxes were highest during storm events that occurred shortly after Animal waste applications. Therefore, to effectively reduce hormone loads exported to downstream aquatic ecosystems in the absence of any application reduction, the short periods during which high-flow events occur must be targeted. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Hormone Discharges from a Midwest Tile-Drained Agroecosystem Receiving Animal Wastes
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Heather E. Gall, Stephen A. Sassman, Chad T. Jafvert

    Abstract:

    Manure is increasingly being viewed as a threat to aquatic ecosystems due to the introduction of natural and synthetic hormones from land application to agricultural fields. In the Midwestern United States, where most agricultural fields are tile-drained, there is little known about hormone release from fields receiving Animal Wastes. To this end, seven sampling stations (four in subsurface tile drains and three in the receiving ditch network) were installed at a Midwest farm where various types of Animal Wastes (beef, dairy, and poultry lagoon effluent, dairy solids, and subsurface injection of swine manure) are applied to agricultural fields. Water flow was continuously monitored and samples were collected for hormone analysis during storm events and baseline flow for a 15 month study period. The compounds analyzed included the natural hormones 17α- and 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, testosterone, and androstenedione and the synthetic androgens 17α- and 17β-trenbolone and trendione. Hormones were dete…

  • hormone discharges from a midwest tile drained agroecosystem receiving Animal Wastes
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Heather E. Gall, Stephen A. Sassman, Linda S Lee, Chad T. Jafvert

    Abstract:

    Manure is increasingly being viewed as a threat to aquatic ecosystems due to the introduction of natural and synthetic hormones from land application to agricultural fields. In the Midwestern United States, where most agricultural fields are tile-drained, there is little known about hormone release from fields receiving Animal Wastes. To this end, seven sampling stations (four in subsurface tile drains and three in the receiving ditch network) were installed at a Midwest farm where various types of Animal Wastes (beef, dairy, and poultry lagoon effluent, dairy solids, and subsurface injection of swine manure) are applied to agricultural fields. Water flow was continuously monitored and samples were collected for hormone analysis during storm events and baseline flow for a 15 month study period. The compounds analyzed included the natural hormones 17α- and 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, testosterone, and androstenedione and the synthetic androgens 17α- and 17β-trenbolone and trendione. Hormones were detected in at least 64% of the samples collected at each station, with estrone being detected the most frequently and estriol the least. Testosterone and androstendione were detected more frequently than synthetic androgens, which were detected in fewer than 15% of samples. Hormone concentrations in subsurface tile drains increased during effluent irrigation and storm events. Hormones also appeared to persist over the winter, with increased concentrations coinciding with early thaws and snowmelt from fields amended with manure solids. The highest concentration of synthetic androgens (168 ng/L) observed coincided with a snowmelt. The highest concentrations of hormones in the ditch waters (87 ng/L for total estrogens and 52 ng/L for natural androgens) were observed in June, which coincides with the early life stage development period of many aquatic species in the Midwest.

Gabriel Negreanu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Solutions for energy recovery of Animal waste from leather industry
    Energy Conversion and Management, 2017
    Co-Authors: Gheorghe Lazaroiu, Constantin Pana, Lucian Mihaescu, Alexandru Cernat, Niculae Negurescu, Raluca Mocanu, Gabriel Negreanu

    Abstract:

    Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as Animal Wastes. Conversion of these Animal Wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this Animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of Animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by Animal Wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of Animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for Animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by Animal Wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.