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Anticarsia gemmatalis

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Flavio Moscardi – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Biological and molecular characterization of two Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus clones exhibiting contrasting virulence.
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2019
    Co-Authors: B. C. Ferreira, Flavio Moscardi, Fernando L Melo, Ana Maria Rodrigues Da Silva, Márcio Martinello Sanches, B. M. Ribeiro, Marlinda Lobo De Souza

    Abstract:

    Abstract Baculovirus natural populations are known to be genetically heterogeneous and such genotypic diversity could have implications in the performance of biocontrol agents. The Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) has been widely used to control the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, in Brazil. In the present work, morphological and molecular analyses as well as the biological activity of AgMNPV genotypes derived from a Brazilian field isolate (AgMNPV-79) were carried out. The existence of genotypic variants in the population was confirmed by DNA restriction analysis. Although difference in virulence was observed among the variants, the most (Ag79-01) and the least (AgL-16) virulent clones do not show any morphological and cytopathological changes when compared to the most studied isolate (AgMNPV-2D). The complete genome analysis of the two viral clones showed the presence of single open reading frames (ORFs) of the pe-38 and he65 genes, which contrasts with the two split ORFs present in the genome of the AgMNPV-2D isolate. The viral clone AgL-16 has many variations in the ie-2 and pe-38 genes, which are transcription regulatory genes responsible for the regulation of viral early gene expression during insect cell infection. Furthermore, other genes showed alterations like the odv-e56, which have an essential role in the maturation and envelopment of the ODVs, and bro-a and bro-b genes which were fused to form a single ORF. For the Ag79-01, although the total number of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was more prominent in the pe-38 gene, its genome showed very few modifications in comparison to the AgMNPV-2D genome.

  • high genetic stability of peroral infection factors from Anticarsia gemmatalis mnpv over 20years of sampling
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Flavio Moscardi, Marlinda Lobo De Souza, Briana C Ferreira, Fernando L Melo, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro

    Abstract:

    Abstract The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) has been used as a biopesticide since the early 1980s in Brazil to control the major pest of soybean crops, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis. To monitor the genetic diversity over space and time we sequenced four pif genes (pif1, pif2, pif3 and pif4) from AgMNPV isolates collected from different regions of South America, as well as of seasonal isolates, sampled during a two-decade field experiment. Although all genes presented low levels of polymorphism, the pif-2 carries a slightly higher number of polymorphic sites. Overall, this study reveals that pif genes have remained stable after 20 years of repeated field application.

  • hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis lepidoptera noctuidae larvae infected by agmnpv
    Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Fabio Andrade, Flavio Moscardi, Maria Claudia Cordeiro De Negreiro, Sheila Michele Levy, Ines Cristina De Batista Fonseca, ângela Maria Ferreira Falleiros

    Abstract:

    The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes – 47.8%, esferulocytes – 25.9%, granulocytes – 15.8%, oenocytoids – 7.2%, prohemocytes – 2.8%, vermicytes – 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.

Bergmann Morais Ribeiro – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Production of viral progeny in insect cells undergoing apoptosis induced by a mutant Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus.
    Microbiological Research, 2020
    Co-Authors: M E B Castro, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro

    Abstract:

    The Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is the most successful viral biopesticide in use worldwide. We have demonstrated that despite widespread apoptosis and no protein synthesis at 48 h p.i., UFL-AG-286 cells infected with a mutant of AgMNPV (vApAg), produced significant amounts of budded virus (BVs) and viral DNA late in infection. However, a different susceptible cell line (BTI-Tn5B1-4) showed no signs of apoptosis and produced 3.5 times more budded virus when infected with vApAg. A comparison of DNA from AgMNPV and vApAg digested with the same restriction enzymes showed differences in the restriction pattern, indicating that the vApAg phenotype might be due to a mutation in a gene or genes responsible for directly or indirectly inhibiting apoptosis in UFL-AG-286 cells.

  • high genetic stability of peroral infection factors from Anticarsia gemmatalis mnpv over 20years of sampling
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Flavio Moscardi, Marlinda Lobo De Souza, Briana C Ferreira, Fernando L Melo, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro

    Abstract:

    Abstract The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) has been used as a biopesticide since the early 1980s in Brazil to control the major pest of soybean crops, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis. To monitor the genetic diversity over space and time we sequenced four pif genes (pif1, pif2, pif3 and pif4) from AgMNPV isolates collected from different regions of South America, as well as of seasonal isolates, sampled during a two-decade field experiment. Although all genes presented low levels of polymorphism, the pif-2 carries a slightly higher number of polymorphic sites. Overall, this study reveals that pif genes have remained stable after 20 years of repeated field application.

  • molecular analysis of a mutant Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus agmnpv shows an interruption of an inhibitor of apoptosis gene iap 3 by a new class ii piggybac related insect transposon
    Insect Molecular Biology, 2009
    Co-Authors: M P Carpes, Paolo Marinho De Andrade Zanotto, M E B Castro, J F Nunes, T L Sampaio, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro

    Abstract:

    : A new piggyBac-related transposable element (TE) was found in the genome of a mutant Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus interrupting an inhibitor of apoptosis gene. This mutant virus induces apoptosis upon infection of an Anticarsia gemmatalis cell line, but not in a Trichoplusia ni cell line. The sequence of the new TE (which was named IDT for iap disruptor transposon) has 2531 bp with two DNA sequences flanking a putative Transposase (Tpase) ORF of 1719 bp coding for a protein with 572 amino acids. These structural features are similar to the piggyBac TE, also reported for the first time in the genome of a baculovirus. We have also isolated variants of this new TE from different lepidopteran insect cells and compared their Tpase sequences.

James E Maruniak – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • methods for detection of Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus dna in soil
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1999
    Co-Authors: R R De Moraes, James E Maruniak, J E Funderburk

    Abstract:

    Two methods, phenol-ether and magnetic capture-hybridization (MCH), were developed and compared with regard to their sensitivities and abilities to extract the DNA of the insect baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) from soil and to produce DNA amplifiable by PCR. Laboratory experiments were performed with 0.25 g of autoclaved soil inoculated with different viral concentrations to optimize both methods of baculovirus DNA extraction and to determine their sensitivities. Both procedures produced amplifiable DNA; however, the MCH method was 100-fold more sensitive than the phenol-ether procedure. The removal of PCR inhibitors from the soil appeared to be complete when MCH was used as the viral DNA isolation method, because undiluted aliquots of the DNA preparations could be amplified by PCR. The phenol-ether procedure probably did not completely remove PCR inhibitors from the soil, since PCR products were observed only when the AgMNPV DNA preparations were diluted 10- or 100-fold. AgMNPV DNA was detected in field-collected soil samples from 15 to 180 days after virus application when the MCH procedure to isolate DNA was coupled with PCR amplification of the polyhedrin region.

  • physical maps and virulence of Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus genomic variants
    Archives of Virology, 1999
    Co-Authors: James E Maruniak, Alejandra Garciamaruniak, Marlinda Lobo De Souza, Paolo Marinho De Andrade Zanotto, Flavio Moscardi

    Abstract:

    Seventeen plaque purified isolates of two viral preparations of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), were analyzed in terms of the genomic changes after digestion of their DNAs with HindIII and PstI restriction enzymes. The 1979 AgMNPV wild type preparation (AgMNPV-’79) resulted in six different variants and the 1985 viral commercial preparation (AgMNPV-’85), in eleven. The genomic variation of all the isolates was mapped showing that those from 1985 presented more heterogeneity with changes mapped in additional sites in comparison to the AgMNPV-’79 variants. Their virulence was compared by infecting two Lepidopteran cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda (IPLB-SF-21AE) and Anticarsia gemmatalis (UFL-AG-286). The results indicated that there was some difference in virulence within the AgMNPV-’85 variants. This commercial preparation had been applied in soybean fields in Brazil over several years to control the velvetbean caterpillar defoliation.

  • a variable region of Anticarsia gemmatalis nuclear polyhedrosis virus contains tandemly repeated dna sequences
    Virus Research, 1996
    Co-Authors: Alejandra Garciamaruniak, Octavio Henrique O Pavan, James E Maruniak

    Abstract:

    Abstract A variable region (PstI-T fragment) of two genotypic variants of the Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AgMNPV) was sequenced and compared. This region, which is known to have deletions and duplications in AgMNPV variants, was shown to be formed of units of a 127 bp tandemly repeated sequence containing two 30 bp imperfect palindromes. Southern blot experiments showed that the PstI-T fragment contained one of the four homologous regions mapped interspersed in the AgMNPV genome. The comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the two variants, AgMNPV-2D and AgMNPV-D7, showed that the difference between these two variants in one of these regions (hr4) was caused by the addition or elimination of 381 bp corresponding exactly to three of the 127 bp repeated sequences. An analysis of the sequence showed homology to the homologous regions (hr) of other baculoviruses. The sequence upstream of the repetitive region contained a sequence homologous to the N-terminal portion of the Autographa californica MNPV and Choristoneura fumiferana MNPV p74 gene.