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Sandra Vacas – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effect of the California red scale Aonidiella aurantii sex pheromone on the natural parasitism by Aphytis spp. in Mediterranean citrus
    Biological Control, 2015
    Co-Authors: Apostolos Pekas, Ferran Garcia-marí, Jaime Primo, Vicente Navarro-llopis, Sandra Vacas

    Abstract:

    Abstract Mating disruption has proved successful against California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Mediterranean citrus. Although mating disruption does not affect negatively the parasitism by Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a CRS parasitoid introduced to the Mediterranean, there is no information regarding its potential effect on the native Aphytis species. In the present study, the effect of CRS mating disruption on the field parasitism inflicted by Aphytis spp. has been assessed and compared to a mineral oil and a control treatment. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the mating disruption we also evaluated its effect on the captures of the CRS males and on fruit infestation. Moreover, the potential role of the CRS sex pheromone as kairomone for the Aphytis species was also evaluated by comparing captures of parasitoids on sticky traps with or without pheromone. Significantly lower CRS male captures and fruit damage were registered in the mating disruption respect to the control or oil treatments indicating that mating disruption was effective. In September, when compared to the control, parasitism by Aphytis spp. was significantly lower in the mating disruption and mineral oil treatments and crucially no Aphytis chrysomphali Mercet were registered in the mating disruption treatment. Finally, while the captures of both A. melinus and Aphytis lepidosaphes (Mercet) were not significantly different between traps with or without pheromone, A. chrysomphali captures were significantly higher in traps baited with CRS pheromone. These results suggest a possible kairomonal effect of the CRS pheromone on A. chrysomphali .

  • Deployment of mating disruption dispensers before and after first seasonal male flights for the control of Aonidiella aurantii in citrus
    Journal of Pest Science, 2014
    Co-Authors: Sandra Vacas, Jaime Primo, Cristina Alfaro, Vicente Navarro-llopis

    Abstract:

    The rejection of citrus fruit caused by infestations of the California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), raises concerns about its management. This fact has led to the introduction of new integrated control methods in citrus orchards, including the implementation of techniques based on pheromones. Previous works described efficient mating disruption pheromone dispensers to control A. aurantii in the Mediterranean region. The main aims of the present study were to adjust the timing of dispenser applications and study the importance of controlling the early first generation of A. aurantii by testing two different application dates: before and after the first CRS male flight. The efficacy of the different mating disruption strategies was tested during 2010 in an experimental orchard and these results were confirmed during 2011 in a commercial citrus farm. Results showed that every mating disruption strategy achieved significantly lower male captures in monitoring pheromone traps compared with untreated plots, as well as mean fruit infestation reductions of about 80 %. The control of the first CRS generation is not essential for achieving a good efficacy as demonstrated in two locations with different pest pressure. The late application of MD dispensers before the second CRS male flight has proven to be effective, suggesting a new advantageous way to apply mating disruption.

  • life history parameters and scale cover surface area of Aonidiella aurantii are altered in a mating disruption environment implications for biological control
    Pest Management Science, 2012
    Co-Authors: Pilar Vanaclocha, Sandra Vacas, Jaime Primo, Cristina Alfaro, Vicente Navarrollopis, Maria Jesús Verdú, Alberto Urbaneja

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, environmentally safe measures to control the California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), have been successfully implemented. These measures include mating disruption (MD) and biological control. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of high concentrations of the CRS sex pheromone on its life history parameters and scale-cover surface area under controlled laboratory conditions.

    RESULTS: The developmental time of both males and females of CRS increased with exposure to airborne pheromone. MD had an effect on both the total number of progeny and on the crawler production period for females. Accordingly, demographic parameters such as net fecundity (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were significantly lower in the pheromone-treated populations. The largest scale-cover surface areas were observed in the CRS reared in the pheromone environment.

    CONCLUSION: A clear influence of airborne pheromone on the biology of CRS has been demonstrated. In addition to the classical mating disruption benefits of this technique, additional benefits, such as increase in the duration of exposure to natural enemies and increase in size, which benefits some species of parasitoids, have been confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry

Jaime Primo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effect of the California red scale Aonidiella aurantii sex pheromone on the natural parasitism by Aphytis spp. in Mediterranean citrus
    Biological Control, 2015
    Co-Authors: Apostolos Pekas, Ferran Garcia-marí, Jaime Primo, Vicente Navarro-llopis, Sandra Vacas

    Abstract:

    Abstract Mating disruption has proved successful against California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Mediterranean citrus. Although mating disruption does not affect negatively the parasitism by Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a CRS parasitoid introduced to the Mediterranean, there is no information regarding its potential effect on the native Aphytis species. In the present study, the effect of CRS mating disruption on the field parasitism inflicted by Aphytis spp. has been assessed and compared to a mineral oil and a control treatment. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the mating disruption we also evaluated its effect on the captures of the CRS males and on fruit infestation. Moreover, the potential role of the CRS sex pheromone as kairomone for the Aphytis species was also evaluated by comparing captures of parasitoids on sticky traps with or without pheromone. Significantly lower CRS male captures and fruit damage were registered in the mating disruption respect to the control or oil treatments indicating that mating disruption was effective. In September, when compared to the control, parasitism by Aphytis spp. was significantly lower in the mating disruption and mineral oil treatments and crucially no Aphytis chrysomphali Mercet were registered in the mating disruption treatment. Finally, while the captures of both A. melinus and Aphytis lepidosaphes (Mercet) were not significantly different between traps with or without pheromone, A. chrysomphali captures were significantly higher in traps baited with CRS pheromone. These results suggest a possible kairomonal effect of the CRS pheromone on A. chrysomphali .

  • Deployment of mating disruption dispensers before and after first seasonal male flights for the control of Aonidiella aurantii in citrus
    Journal of Pest Science, 2014
    Co-Authors: Sandra Vacas, Jaime Primo, Cristina Alfaro, Vicente Navarro-llopis

    Abstract:

    The rejection of citrus fruit caused by infestations of the California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), raises concerns about its management. This fact has led to the introduction of new integrated control methods in citrus orchards, including the implementation of techniques based on pheromones. Previous works described efficient mating disruption pheromone dispensers to control A. aurantii in the Mediterranean region. The main aims of the present study were to adjust the timing of dispenser applications and study the importance of controlling the early first generation of A. aurantii by testing two different application dates: before and after the first CRS male flight. The efficacy of the different mating disruption strategies was tested during 2010 in an experimental orchard and these results were confirmed during 2011 in a commercial citrus farm. Results showed that every mating disruption strategy achieved significantly lower male captures in monitoring pheromone traps compared with untreated plots, as well as mean fruit infestation reductions of about 80 %. The control of the first CRS generation is not essential for achieving a good efficacy as demonstrated in two locations with different pest pressure. The late application of MD dispensers before the second CRS male flight has proven to be effective, suggesting a new advantageous way to apply mating disruption.

  • life history parameters and scale cover surface area of Aonidiella aurantii are altered in a mating disruption environment implications for biological control
    Pest Management Science, 2012
    Co-Authors: Pilar Vanaclocha, Sandra Vacas, Jaime Primo, Cristina Alfaro, Vicente Navarrollopis, Maria Jesús Verdú, Alberto Urbaneja

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, environmentally safe measures to control the California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), have been successfully implemented. These measures include mating disruption (MD) and biological control. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of high concentrations of the CRS sex pheromone on its life history parameters and scale-cover surface area under controlled laboratory conditions.

    RESULTS: The developmental time of both males and females of CRS increased with exposure to airborne pheromone. MD had an effect on both the total number of progeny and on the crawler production period for females. Accordingly, demographic parameters such as net fecundity (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were significantly lower in the pheromone-treated populations. The largest scale-cover surface areas were observed in the CRS reared in the pheromone environment.

    CONCLUSION: A clear influence of airborne pheromone on the biology of CRS has been demonstrated. In addition to the classical mating disruption benefits of this technique, additional benefits, such as increase in the duration of exposure to natural enemies and increase in size, which benefits some species of parasitoids, have been confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry

Patricia Chueca – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • efficacy of standard and low drift nozzles for insecticide applications against Aonidiella aurantii maskell in citrus
    Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 2015
    Co-Authors: Cruz Garcera, Eduardo Moltó, R Abad, J A Insa, Xavier Torrent, C Roman, S Planas, Patricia Chueca

    Abstract:

    Efficacy of standard and low drift nozzles for insecticide applications against Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) in citrus C. Garcera 1, E. Molto 1, R. Abad2, J.A. Insa2, X. Torrent3, C. Roman3, S. Planas3, P. Chueca1 1 Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias. Centro de Agroingenieria. Moncada, Valencia, SPAIN 2 Dow Agrosciences Iberica S.A. Madrid SPAIN Universitat de Lleida. Dep. Agroforestry Eng.Agrotecnio. Lleida SPAIN.

  • Factors influencing the efficacy of two organophosphate insecticides in controlling California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell). A basis for reducing spray application volume in Mediterranean conditions
    Pest Management Science, 2014
    Co-Authors: Cruz Garcera, Eduardo Moltó, Patricia Chueca

    Abstract:

    BackgroundBecause society is seeking ways to lessen the environmental impact of agricultural activity, dose adjustment has become a key issue in current plant protection treatments with high spray application volumes, such as on citrus plants. This work investigates, in field conditions, the factors affecting the efficacy of organophosphate insecticides against California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), when the delivery rate is decreased. Insecticide rate changes were induced by modifying the spray application volumes of two commercial organophosphate pesticides based on chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl. ResultsResults showed that, with increase in the spray volume, the coverage and the uniformity of deposition on the canopy increased, but final infestation depended neither on the spray application volume nor on the coverage. Furthermore, final infestation significantly depended on the pest pressure in the plot and the spray volume applied per unit volume of canopy (L m(-3) canopy). Moreover, it was found that the final infestation was influenced by the efficiency of deposition in the applications that were carried out against the second-generation of CRS. ConclusionBecause the spray application volume did not affect the final infestation, this research introduces the possibility that reducing the doses of current citrus organophosphate treatments may still allow effective plant protection in Mediterranean conditions. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry

  • Modelling the spray deposition and efficacy of two mineral oil-based products for the control of California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)
    Crop Protection, 2012
    Co-Authors: Cruz Garcera, Eduardo Moltó, Manuel Zarzo, Patricia Chueca

    Abstract:

    Abstract The pattern and quantity of pesticide deposition may affect the efficacy of pesticide treatments. In this study we evaluated under laboratory conditions the efficacy of two petroleum-derived spray oils (PDSO) (Laincoil ® , an n C21 oil with a content of 83% w/v, Oil A, and Sunspray Ultrafine ® , an n C21 with a content of 85% w/v, Oil B, both with an unsulfonated residue of 92%) applied at 1.5% concentration at five volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 ml) against different stages of Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Homoptera: Diaspididae). In parallel, we characterized the deposition pattern of treatments resulting from these five volumes and two PDSOs. The objective was to model deposition characteristics and efficacy as a function of the deposited volume in order to determine the optimum volume per unit surface that should be applied to control this pest. Different models that depend on the developmental stage and relate to the efficacy of the treatment as a function of the deposited volume have been obtained for both PDSOs, thus providing a scientific basis for product efficacy comparison. Furthermore, our results are also relevant to find an adequate trade-off between sprayed pesticide volume and expected efficacy.