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Aquaculture System

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Yale Deng – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the impact of do and salinity on microbial community in poly butylene succinate denitrification reactors for recirculating Aquaculture System wastewater treatment
    AMB Express, 2017
    Co-Authors: Yale Deng, Yunjie Ruan, Zhangying Ye

    Abstract:

    The interactions between environmental factors and bacterial community shift in solid-phase denitrification are crucial for optimum operation of a reactor and to achieve maximum treatment efficiency. In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was applied to reveal the effects of different operational conditions on bacterial community distribution of three continuous operated poly(butylene succinate) biological denitrification reactors used for recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) wastewater treatment. The results indicated that salinity decreased OTU numbers and diversity while dissolved oxygen (DO) had no obvious influence on OTU numbers. Significant microbial community composition differences were observed among and between three denitrification reactors under varied operation conditions. This result was also demonstrated by cluster analysis (CA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). Hierarchical clustering and redundancy analysis (RDA) was performed to test the relationship between environmental factors and bacterial community compositions and result indicated that salinity, DO and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were the three key factors in microbial community formation. Besides, Simplicispira was detected under all operational conditions, which worth drawing more attention for nitrate removal. Moreover, the abundance of nosZ gene and 16S rRNA were analyzed by real-time PCR, which suggested that salinity decreased the proportion of denitrifiers among whole bacterial community while DO had little influence on marine reactors. This study provides an overview of microbial community shift dynamics in solid-phase denitrification reactors when operation parameters changed and proved the feasibility to apply interval aeration for denitrification process based on microbial level, which may shed light on improving the performance of RAS treatment units.

  • biological denitrification using poly butylene succinate as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating Aquaculture System effluent treatment
    Bioresource Technology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Yale Deng, Yunjie Ruan, Jiazheng Shen

    Abstract:

    Abstract Nitrate removal is essential for the sustainable operation of recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS). This study evaluated the heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for RAS wastewater treatment. The effect of varied operational conditions (influent type, salinity and nitrate loading) on reactor performance and microbial community was investigated. The high denitrification rates of 0.53 ± 0.19 kg NO3−-N m−3 d−1 (salinity, 0‰) and 0.66 ± 0.12 kg NO3−-N m−3 d−1 (salinity, 25‰) were achieved, and nitrite concentration was maintained below 1 mg/L. In addition, the existence of salinity exhibited more stable nitrate removal efficiency, but caused adverse effects such as excessive effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissimilation nitrate reduce to ammonia (DNRA) activity. The degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. Illumina sequencing revealed the abundance and species changes of functional denitrification and degradation microflora which might be the primary cause of varied reactor performance.

Yunjie Ruan – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the impact of do and salinity on microbial community in poly butylene succinate denitrification reactors for recirculating Aquaculture System wastewater treatment
    AMB Express, 2017
    Co-Authors: Yale Deng, Yunjie Ruan, Zhangying Ye

    Abstract:

    The interactions between environmental factors and bacterial community shift in solid-phase denitrification are crucial for optimum operation of a reactor and to achieve maximum treatment efficiency. In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was applied to reveal the effects of different operational conditions on bacterial community distribution of three continuous operated poly(butylene succinate) biological denitrification reactors used for recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) wastewater treatment. The results indicated that salinity decreased OTU numbers and diversity while dissolved oxygen (DO) had no obvious influence on OTU numbers. Significant microbial community composition differences were observed among and between three denitrification reactors under varied operation conditions. This result was also demonstrated by cluster analysis (CA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). Hierarchical clustering and redundancy analysis (RDA) was performed to test the relationship between environmental factors and bacterial community compositions and result indicated that salinity, DO and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were the three key factors in microbial community formation. Besides, Simplicispira was detected under all operational conditions, which worth drawing more attention for nitrate removal. Moreover, the abundance of nosZ gene and 16S rRNA were analyzed by real-time PCR, which suggested that salinity decreased the proportion of denitrifiers among whole bacterial community while DO had little influence on marine reactors. This study provides an overview of microbial community shift dynamics in solid-phase denitrification reactors when operation parameters changed and proved the feasibility to apply interval aeration for denitrification process based on microbial level, which may shed light on improving the performance of RAS treatment units.

  • biological denitrification using poly butylene succinate as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating Aquaculture System effluent treatment
    Bioresource Technology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Yale Deng, Yunjie Ruan, Jiazheng Shen

    Abstract:

    Abstract Nitrate removal is essential for the sustainable operation of recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS). This study evaluated the heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for RAS wastewater treatment. The effect of varied operational conditions (influent type, salinity and nitrate loading) on reactor performance and microbial community was investigated. The high denitrification rates of 0.53 ± 0.19 kg NO3−-N m−3 d−1 (salinity, 0‰) and 0.66 ± 0.12 kg NO3−-N m−3 d−1 (salinity, 25‰) were achieved, and nitrite concentration was maintained below 1 mg/L. In addition, the existence of salinity exhibited more stable nitrate removal efficiency, but caused adverse effects such as excessive effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissimilation nitrate reduce to ammonia (DNRA) activity. The degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. Illumina sequencing revealed the abundance and species changes of functional denitrification and degradation microflora which might be the primary cause of varied reactor performance.

Steven T Summerfelt – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • optimizing hydraulic retention times in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors treating recirculating Aquaculture System wastewater
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2016
    Co-Authors: Christine Lepine, Laura E Christianson, Kata L Sharrer, Steven T Summerfelt

    Abstract:

    : The performance of wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to treat high-nitrate wastewaters from Aquaculture Systems has not previously been demonstrated. Four pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors (approximately 1:10 scale) were constructed and operated for 268 d to determine the optimal range of design hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for nitrate removal. The bioreactors were operated under HRTs ranging from 6.6 to 55 h with influent nitrate concentrations generally between 20 and 80 mg NO-N L. These combinations resulted in N removal rates >39 g N m d, which is greater than previously reported. These high removal rates were due in large part to the relatively high chemical oxygen demand and warm temperature (∼19°C) of the wastewater. An optimized design HRT may not be the same based on metrics of N removal rate versus N removal efficiency; longer HRTs demonstrated higher removal efficiencies, and shorter HRTs had higher removal rates. When nitrate influent concentrations were approximately 75 mg NO-N L ( = 6 sample events), the shortest HRT (12 h) had the lowest removal efficiency (45%) but a significantly greater removal rate than the two longest HRTs (42 and 55 h), which were N limited. Sulfate reduction was also observed under highly reduced conditions and was exacerbated under prolonged N-limited environments. Balancing the removal rate and removal efficiency for this water chemistry with a design HRT of approximately 24 h would result in a 65% removal efficiency and removal rates of at least 18 g N m d.

  • impact of depuration of earthy musty off flavors on fillet quality of atlantic salmon salmo salar cultured in a recirculating Aquaculture System
    Aquacultural Engineering, 2012
    Co-Authors: Gary S Burr, William R Wolters, Kevin K Schrader, Steven T Summerfelt

    Abstract:

    Abstract Over the past decade in the United States, there has been increased interest in the establishment and use of land-based, closed-containment Systems [e.g., recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS)] for salmonid culture. These culture Systems have unique challenges compared to net pen culture of salmonids, including maintenance of pumps and filters as well as the potential growth of certain bacteria within the Systems that can render fish off-flavored. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of implementing a depuration process to purge the “earthy” and “musty” off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) from Atlantic salmon fillets on fillet quality characteristics (e.g., lipid content, color). During two depuration trials, salmon were depurated without feed in a flow-through tank, a recently “cleaned” RAS System or the originally stocked grow-out tank for up to 20 days. Results from both trials determined that the salmon required depuration in odor-free water for 10–15 days in either a flow-through System or a recently cleaned RAS to obtain the lowest residual levels of geosmin and MIB in the fish flesh. In trial 1, after 20 days, fish had lost significantly more weight (5.8%) compared to day 5 (3.8%). In the second trial, lipid content of the fillet also significantly dropped from 8.2% to 5.1% and moisture content increased from 69.3% to 71.1%. Fillet color quality was not compromised during the 20-day depuration periods. In trial 1, MIB was the main off-flavor compound present in salmon fillets while geosmin was at higher levels than MIB in fish flesh in trial 2. During the second depuration study, three geosmin-producing species of actinomycetes were isolated from the recirculating System and were attributed as the likely sources of geosmin in the salmon fillets. Because fillet color quality was not compromised during the depuration periods used in these studies, the main fillet quality concerns for producers of RAS-cultured salmon are flavor, texture and lipid levels during the pre-harvest purging process.

  • membrane biological reactor treatment of a saline backwash flow from a recirculating Aquaculture System
    Aquacultural Engineering, 2007
    Co-Authors: Mark J Sharrer, Drew Ferrier, Joseph A Hankins, Steven T Summerfelt

    Abstract:

    A recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) can minimize water use, allowing fish production in regions where water is scarce and also placing the waterborne wastes into a concentrated and relatively small volume of effluent. The RAS effluent generated during clarifier backwash is usually small in volume (possibly 0.2–0.5% of the total recirculating flow when microscreen filters are used) but contains high levels of concentrated organic solids and nutrients. When a RAS is operated at high salinities for culture of marine species, recovering the saltwater contained in the backwash effluent could allow for its reuse within the RAS and also reduce salt discharge to the environment. Membrane biological reactors (MBRs) combine activated sludge type treatment with membrane filtration. Therefore, in addition to removing biodegradable organics, suspended solids, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, MBRs retain high concentrations of microorganisms and, when operated with membrane pore sizes <1 μm, exclude microorganisms from their discharge. In this research, an Enviroquip (Austin, TX) MBR pilot-plant was installed and evaluated over a range of salinities to determine its effectiveness at removing bacteria, turbidity, suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and cBOD5 content from the approximately 22 m3/day concentrated biosolids backwash flow discharged from the RASs at The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute. The MBR System was managed at a hydraulic retention time of 40.8 h, a solids retention time of 64 ± 8 days, resulting in a Food: Microorganism ratio of 0.029 day−1. Results indicated excellent removal efficiency (%) of TSS (99.65 ± 0.1 to 99.98 ± 0.01) and TVS (99.96 ± 0.01 to 99.99 ± 0.0) at all salinity levels. Similarly, a 3–4 log10 removal of total heterotrophic microbes and total coliform was seen at all treatment conditions. Total nitrogen removal efficiency (%) ranged from 91.8 ± 2.9 to 95.5 ± 0.6 at the treatment levels and was consistent, provided a sufficient acclimation period to each new condition was given. Conversely, total phosphorus removal efficiencies (%) at 0 ppt, 8 ppt, 16 ppt and 32 ppt salinity were 96.1 ± 1.0, 72.7 ± 3.5, 70.4 ± 2.3, and 65.2 ± 5.4, respectively, indicating reduced phosphorus removal at higher salinities.