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Bradley W. Bolling – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Composition, polyphenol bioavailability, and health benefits of Aronia berry: a review
    Journal of Food Bioactives, 2020
    Co-Authors: Erica S. King, Bradley W. Bolling

    Abstract:

    Aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa and Aronia mitschurinii) are underutilized functional food, rich in bioactives. Aronia berries have abundant levels of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, and phenolic acids that may reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and neurological disease. Aronia polyphenols are bioavailable, and the majority are transformed into low molecular-weight phenolics. The impact of biotransformation on Aronia polyphenols health effects is not fully understood. The objective of this review is to analyze Aronia berry composition, including polyphenols nutrients. Additionally, this review summarizes recent preclinical and clinical studies on the polyphenol bioavailability and health benefits upon Aronia berry consumption to better understand its potential as a functional food.

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  • Aronia berry inhibits disruption of Caco-2 intestinal barrier function.
    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jonathan C. Valdez, Junhyo Cho, Bradley W. Bolling

    Abstract:

    Abstract The objective of this work was to determine how Aronia berry polyphenols and its microbial catabolites improve intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 cells were cultured on transwell plates and allowed differentiate to form a model intestinal barrier, having baseline transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) ≥ 300 Ω cm2. Barrier function of differentiated Caco-2 cells was compromised by the addition of an inflammatory cocktail (IC: TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ to the basolateral media and lipopolysaccharide to the apical media). Polyphenol-rich Aronia berry powder or individual polyphenols representative of parent compounds or catabolites were applied to the basolateral media concurrently with IC. TEER was determined subsequently by chopstick electrode or continuous analysis. Permeability was determined by application of 4 kDa FITC-dextran or Lucifer yellow. Expression of tight junction proteins was assessed by qRT-PCR analysis. Application of the IC to differentiated Caco-2 cells routinely reduced TEER by ~40% within 24 h. Individual polyphenols representative of parent compounds or phenolic microbial catabolites at 100 μM did not inhibit IC reduction of TEER in Caco-2 cells. Whole Aronia berry powder inhibited loss of TEER by ~50% at 24 h after application of the IC. Furthermore 5 mg/mL of Aronia berry powder prevented an IC-induced barrier permeability of FITC-dextran and Lucifer yellow. After 12 h of IC treatment, Caco-2 cells had increased claudin 1 (CLDN1) relative to the untreated control. Application of Aronia berry powder inhibited CLDN1 and also increased expression of zonula ocludens-1 (ZO-1) after 12 h. In summary, Aronia berry, but not its microbiota-derived catabolites improved intestinal barrier function in a cellular model of chronic colonic inflammation. In this case, improved barrier function was associated with modulation of tight junction expression.

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  • Aronia Berry Supplementation Mitigates Inflammation in T Cell Transfer-Induced Colitis by Decreasing Oxidative Stress
    Nutrients, 2019
    Co-Authors: Ruisong Pei, Derek A. Martin, Zhenhua Liu, Jonathan C. Valdez, Jiyuan Liu, Justin Jeffety, Gregory A. Barrett-wilt, Bradley W. Bolling

    Abstract:

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Consumption of Aronia berry inhibits T cell transfer colitis, but the antioxidant mechanisms pertinent to immune function are unclear. We hypothesized that Aronia berry consumption could inhibit inflammation by modulating the antioxidant function of immunocytes and gastrointestinal tissues. Colitis was induced in recombinase activating gene-1 deficient (Rag1-/-) mice injected with syngeneic CD4+CD62L+ naive T cells. Concurrent with transfer, mice consumed either 4.5% w/w Aronia berry-supplemented or a control diet for five weeks. Aronia berry inhibited intestinal inflammation evidenced by lower colon weight/length ratios, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) uptake, mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the colon. Aronia berry also suppressed systemic inflammation evidenced by lower FDG uptake in the spleen, liver, and lung. Colitis induced increased colon malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased colon glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (rGSH) level, and suppressed expression of antioxidant enzymes in the colon and mesenteric lymph node (MLN). Aronia berry upregulated expression of antioxidant enzymes, prevented colitis-associated depletion of rGSH, and maintained GPx activity. Moreover, Aronia berry modulated mitochondria-specific antioxidant activity and decreased splenic mitochondrial H2O2 production in colitic mice. Thus, Aronia berry consumption inhibits oxidative stress in the colon during T cell transfer colitis because of its multifaceted antioxidant function in both the cytosol and mitochondria of immunocytes.

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Mark H Brand – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Sexual and Apomictic Seed Reproduction in Aronia Species with Different Ploidy Levels
    HortScience, 2019
    Co-Authors: Jonathan D. Mahoney, Bryan A Connolly, Thao Hau, Mark H Brand

    Abstract:

    The genus Aronia Medik., also known as chokeberry, is a group of deciduous shrubs in the Rosaceae family, subtribe Pyrinae. The four commonly accepted species include A. arbutifolia (L.) Pers., red chokeberry; A. melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott, black chokeberry; A. prunifolia (Marshall) Reheder, purple chokeberry; and A. mitschurinii (A.K. Skvortsov & Maitul). Wild and domesticated Aronia species are found as diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. Genetic improvement of polyploid Aronia genotypes has been limited by suspected apomixis, which may be widespread or distinct to tetraploids. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the reproductive mechanisms of Aronia species and reveal the occurrence of apomixis within the genus and along ploidy lines. Twenty-nine Aronia accessions [five A. melanocarpa (2×), five A. melanocarpa (4×), eight A. prunifolia (3×), four A. prunifolia (4×), six A. arbutifolia (4×), and one A. mitschurinii (4×)] were used in this study. Intra-accession variability was evaluated by growing out progeny from each open-pollinated maternal accession and comparing plant phenotypes, ploidy levels, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker profiles between the progeny and maternal accession. Progeny of diploid and tetraploid maternal plants had ploidy levels identical to maternal plants, except for UC009 (A. melanocarpa, 2×) which produced a mix of diploids and tetraploids. UC143 and UC149 (A. prunifolia, 3×) produced all triploid offspring, whereas all other triploid accessions produced offspring with variable ploidy levels including 2×, 3×, 4×, and 5×. Pentaploid Aronia has not been previously reported. Diploid accessions produced significant AFLP genetic variation (0.68–0.78 Jaccard’s similarity coefficient) in progeny, which is indicative of sexual reproduction. Seedlings from tetraploid accessions had very little AFLP genetic variation (0.93–0.98 Jaccard’s similarity coefficient) in comparison with their maternal accession. The very limited genetic variation suggests the occurrence of limited diplosporous apomixis with one round of meiotic division in tetraploid progeny. Triploid accessions appear to reproduce sexually or apomictically, or both, depending on the individual. These results support our understanding of Aronia reproductive mechanisms and will help guide future breeding efforts of polyploid Aronia species.

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  • Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaves of Aronia mitschurinii and cotyledons of closely related Pyrinae taxa
    Scientia Horticulturae, 2018
    Co-Authors: Jonathan D. Mahoney, Peter V. Apicella, Mark H Brand

    Abstract:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure and to evaluate the frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration from: (1) in vitro leaves of a commercial cultivar of Aronia mitschurinii on various media treatments; (2) cotyledons of closely related Pyrinae taxa; and (3) 21 wild Aronia genotypes. Optimum regeneration of leaf explants occurred when they were wounded with two transverse cuts along the midrib and placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media containing 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 10 μM thidiazuron (TDZ). TDZ was more effective than 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) as a cytokinin, and IBA was more effective than the no auxin control, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Regeneration from cotyledons of seven Pyrinae taxa was evaluated using 10 μM BAP in combination with 0.1, 1 and 5 μM NAA. Adventitious shoot formation for A. melanocarpa and P. communis responded best to 1 μM NAA, whereas all other taxa formed a greater number of adventitious shoots on 5 μM NAA. A. mitschurinii cotyledon explants produced a significantly greater number of shoots compared with in vitro leaf explants. The number of shoots forming per cotyledon explant and the percent of explants forming shoots were both significantly different among the 21 Aronia genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the six Aronia taxonomic groups for the number of shoots forming per explant. Diploid and tetraploid Aronia genotypes produced a significantly greater number of shoots per explant than did triploid genotypes. Regenerated shoots were rooted in vitro and plants grew normally in the greenhouse. These results will be useful for future studies using leaf and cotyledon explants for genetic transformation, genome editing and mutation breeding with Aronia and related taxa.

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  • Microsatellite Markers for Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry) and Their Transferability to Other Aronia Species
    HortScience, 2017
    Co-Authors: Samuel G. Obae, Bryan A Connolly, Mark H Brand, Rochelle R. Beasley, Stacey L. Lance

    Abstract:

    This study reports the development, characterization, and cross-species transferability of 20 genomic microsatellite markers for Aronia melanocarpa, an important nutraceutical fruit crop. The markers were developed with Illumina paired-end genomic sequencing technology using DNA from Professor Ed cultivar that was originally collected from the wild in New Hampshire. The markers were highly polymorphic and transferable to Aronia arbutifolia and Aronia prunifolia genomes. The average number of alleles per locus was 9.1, 4.5, and 5.6 for A. melanocarpa, A. arbutifolia, and A. prunifolia, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of loci ranged from 0.38 to 0.95 for all taxa, with an average of 0.80, 0.68, and 0.87 for A. melanocarpa, A. arbutifolia, and A. prunifolia, respectively. This is the first study to develop microsatellite markers in the Aronia genus. These markers will be very useful in studying the genetic diversity and population structure of wild Aronia and expediting the breeding efforts of this emerging fruit crop through marker-assisted selection.

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Derek A. Martin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aronia Berry Supplementation Mitigates Inflammation in T Cell Transfer-Induced Colitis by Decreasing Oxidative Stress
    Nutrients, 2019
    Co-Authors: Ruisong Pei, Derek A. Martin, Zhenhua Liu, Jonathan C. Valdez, Jiyuan Liu, Justin Jeffety, Gregory A. Barrett-wilt, Bradley W. Bolling

    Abstract:

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Consumption of Aronia berry inhibits T cell transfer colitis, but the antioxidant mechanisms pertinent to immune function are unclear. We hypothesized that Aronia berry consumption could inhibit inflammation by modulating the antioxidant function of immunocytes and gastrointestinal tissues. Colitis was induced in recombinase activating gene-1 deficient (Rag1-/-) mice injected with syngeneic CD4+CD62L+ naive T cells. Concurrent with transfer, mice consumed either 4.5% w/w Aronia berry-supplemented or a control diet for five weeks. Aronia berry inhibited intestinal inflammation evidenced by lower colon weight/length ratios, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) uptake, mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the colon. Aronia berry also suppressed systemic inflammation evidenced by lower FDG uptake in the spleen, liver, and lung. Colitis induced increased colon malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased colon glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (rGSH) level, and suppressed expression of antioxidant enzymes in the colon and mesenteric lymph node (MLN). Aronia berry upregulated expression of antioxidant enzymes, prevented colitis-associated depletion of rGSH, and maintained GPx activity. Moreover, Aronia berry modulated mitochondria-specific antioxidant activity and decreased splenic mitochondrial H2O2 production in colitic mice. Thus, Aronia berry consumption inhibits oxidative stress in the colon during T cell transfer colitis because of its multifaceted antioxidant function in both the cytosol and mitochondria of immunocytes.

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  • Dietary Prevention of Colitis by Aronia Berry is Mediated Through Increased Th17 and Treg.
    Molecular nutrition & food research, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ruisong Pei, Derek A. Martin, Joan A. Smyth, Zhenhua Liu, Jonathan C. Valdez, Jiyuan Liu, Robert L. Kerby, Federico E. Rey, Bradley W. Bolling

    Abstract:

    Scope Increased fruit consumption is associated with reduced risk of colitis. It has been investigated whether the anti-colitic effects of the polyphenol-rich Aronia berry (Aronia mitschurinii ‘Viking’) are mediated through Th17 and Treg. Methods and results Colitis is induced in recombinase activating gene-1 deficient mice injected with syngeneic CD4+ CD62L+ naive T cells. Mice consume either 4.5% w/w Aronia-berry-supplemented or a control diet concurrent with T cell transfer. The extent of colitis and immunocyte populations are evaluated at weeks 3 to 7 after transfer. Aronia consumption prevents colitic wasting and reduces colon weight/length ratios relative to the control diet at weeks 5 and 7. Compared to the control diet, Aronia feeding increases Treg in mesenteric lymph node at all colitis stages. Treg and regulatory Th17 subpopulations (IL-17A+ IL-10+ and IL-17A+ IL-22+ ) are increased in lamina propria and spleen at week 5 in Aronia-fed mice. Aronia feeding also decreases total CD4+ cells but increases colonic Tregs. The ability of Aronia to modulate colonic cytokines is associated with functional T cell IL-10 and increased diversity of microbiota. Conclusions Aronia berry consumption inhibits adoptive transfer colitis by increasing Treg and regulatory Th17 cells. Dietary modulation of T cells is dynamic and precedes colitic wasting.

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  • Aronia berry (Aronia mitschurinii ‘Viking’) inhibits colitis in mice and inhibits T cell tumour necrosis factor-α secretion
    Journal of Functional Foods, 2018
    Co-Authors: Derek A. Martin, Joan A. Smyth, Zhenhua Liu, Bradley W. Bolling

    Abstract:

    Abstract Aronia berries are rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that Aronia berry consumption modulates intestinal immune function and T cells. The aims of the present work were to assess the immunomodulatory potential of ‘Viking’ Aronia berry (black chokeberry, Aronia mitschurinii) in vivo and to determine the extent Aronia berry polyphenols or known microbial polyphenol catabolites inhibit T cell tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Aronia berry consumption increased colonic IL-10 secretion in healthy mice, but did not inhibit ex vivo cytokine secretion of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated spleen and colon tissue. Aronia berry consumption inhibited wasting associated with T cell adoptive transfer and dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis. Aronia extracts, neutral phenols fraction, and the polyphenol catabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid inhibited TNF-α production in Jurkat T cells. Therefore, T cells and microbial catabolism partly mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of Aronia consumption in the colon.

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