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Arthropod Vector

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José De La Fuente – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • use of graph theory to characterize human and Arthropod Vector cell protein response to infection with anaplasma phagocytophilum
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Agustin Estradapena, José De La Fuente, Margarita Villar, Sara Artigasjeronimo, Vladimir Lopez, Pilar Alberdi, Alejandro Cabezascruz

    Abstract:

    One of the major challenges in modern biology is the use of large omics datasets for the characterization of complex processes such as cell response to infection. These challenges are even bigger when analyses need to be performed for comparison of different species including model and non-model organisms. To address these challenges, the graph theory was applied to characterize the tick Vector and human cell protein response to infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A network of interacting proteins and cell processes clustered in biological pathways, and ranked with indexes representing the topology of the proteome was prepared. The results demonstrated that networks of functionally interacting proteins represented in both infected and uninfected cells can describe the complete set of host cell processes and metabolic pathways, providing a deeper view of the comparative host cell response to pathogen infection. The results demonstrated that changes in the tick proteome were driven by modifications in protein representation in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. Pathogen infection had a higher impact on tick than human proteome. Since most proteins were linked to several cell processes, the changes in protein representation affected simultaneously different biological pathways. The method allowed discerning cell processes that were affected by pathogen infection from those that remained unaffected. The results supported that human neutrophils but not tick cells limit pathogen infection through differential representation of ras-related proteins. This methodological approach could be applied to other host-pathogen models to identify host derived key proteins in response to infection that may be used to develop novel control strategies for Arthropod-borne pathogens.

  • control of ixodes ricinus and dermacentor reticulatus tick infestations in rabbits vaccinated with the q38 subolesin akirin chimera
    Vaccine, 2016
    Co-Authors: Marinela Contreras, José De La Fuente

    Abstract:

    Diseases transmitted by ticks greatly impact human and animal health and their control is important for the eradication of tick-borne diseases. Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Recent results have suggested that Subolesin/Akirin (SUB/AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of Arthropod Vector infestations. Here, we describe the effect of vaccination with the Q38 chimera containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick larval mortality, feeding and molting. We demonstrated that Q38 vaccination had an efficacy of 99.9% and 46.4% on the control of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae by considering the cumulative effect on reducing tick survival and molting. The effect of the Q38 vaccine on larval feeding and molting is essential to reduce tick infestations and supports that Q38 might be a candidate universal antigen for the control of multiple tick species that can infest the same host.

  • Control of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick infestations in rabbits vaccinated with the Q38 Subolesin/Akirin chimera.
    Vaccine, 2016
    Co-Authors: Marinela Contreras, José De La Fuente

    Abstract:

    Diseases transmitted by ticks greatly impact human and animal health and their control is important for the eradication of tick-borne diseases. Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Recent results have suggested that Subolesin/Akirin (SUB/AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of Arthropod Vector infestations. Here, we describe the effect of vaccination with the Q38 chimera containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick larval mortality, feeding and molting. We demonstrated that Q38 vaccination had an efficacy of 99.9% and 46.4% on the control of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae by considering the cumulative effect on reducing tick survival and molting. The effect of the Q38 vaccine on larval feeding and molting is essential to reduce tick infestations and supports that Q38 might be a candidate universal antigen for the control of multiple tick species that can infest the same host.

Issa N Lyimo – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • entomopathogenic fungi metarhizium anisopliae and beauveria bassiana reduce the survival of xenopsylla brasiliensis larvae siphonaptera pulicidae
    Parasites & Vectors, 2012
    Co-Authors: Ladislaus L . Mnyone, Humphrey D. Mazigo, Abdul A Katakweba, Kija R Nghabi, Issa N Lyimo

    Abstract:

    Entomopathogenic fungi, particularly those belonging to the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria have shown great promise as Arthropod Vector control tools. These agents, however, have not been evaluated against flea Vectors of plague. A 3-h exposure to the fungi coated paper at a concentration of 2 × 108 conidia m-2 infected >90% of flea larvae cadavers in the treatment groups. The infection reduced the survival of larvae that had been exposed to fungus relative to controls. The daily risk of dying was four- and over three-fold greater in larvae exposed to M. anisopliae (HR = 4, p<0.001) and B. bassiana (HR = 3.5, p<0.001) respectively. Both fungi can successfully infect and kill larvae of X. brasiliensis with a pooled median survival time (MST±SE) of 2±0.31 days post-exposure. These findings justify further research to investigate the bio-control potential of entomopathogenic fungi against fleas.

  • Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana reduce the survival of Xenopsylla brasiliensis larvae (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)
    Parasites & Vectors, 2012
    Co-Authors: Ladislaus L . Mnyone, Kija R. Ng’habi, Humphrey D. Mazigo, Abdul A Katakweba, Issa N Lyimo

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi, particularly those belonging to the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria have shown great promise as Arthropod Vector control tools. These agents, however, have not been evaluated against flea Vectors of plague.\nFINDINGS: A 3-h exposure to the fungi coated paper at a concentration of 2 × 108 conidia m-2 infected >90% of flea larvae cadavers in the treatment groups. The infection reduced the survival of larvae that had been exposed to fungus relative to controls. The daily risk of dying was four- and over three-fold greater in larvae exposed to M. anisopliae (HR = 4, p

Job E Lopez – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • transmission dynamics of borrelia turicatae from the Arthropod Vector
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2014
    Co-Authors: William K Boyle, Hannah K Wilder, Amanda M Lawrence, Job E Lopez

    Abstract:

    Background
    With the global distribution, morbidity, and mortality associated with tick and louse-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to understand the dynamics of Vector colonization by the bacteria and transmission to the host. Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are blood-borne pathogens transmitted through the saliva of soft ticks, yet little is known about the transmission capability of these pathogens during the relatively short bloodmeal. This study was therefore initiated to understand the transmission dynamics of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae from the Vector Ornithodoros turicata, and the subsequent dissemination of the bacteria upon entry into murine blood.

  • development of genetic system to inactivate a borrelia turicatae surface protein selectively produced within the salivary glands of the Arthropod Vector
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2013
    Co-Authors: Job E Lopez, Hannah K Wilder, Reid Hargrove, Christopher P Brooks, Karin E Peterson, Paul A Beare, Daniel E Sturdevant, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Sandra J Raffel, Tom G Schwan

    Abstract:

    Background: Borrelia turicatae, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, is an example of a pathogen that can adapt to disparate conditions found when colonizing the mammalian host and Arthropod Vector. However, little is known about the genetic factors necessary during the tick-mammalian infectious cycle, therefore we developed a genetic system to transform this species of spirochete. We also identified a plasmid gene that was up-regulated in vitro when B. turicatae was grown in conditions mimicking the tick environment. This 40 kilodalton protein was predicted to be surface localized and designated the Borrelia repeat protein A (brpA) due to the redundancy of the amino acid motif Gln-Gly-Asn-Val-Glu. Methodology/Principal Findings: Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using RNA from B. turicatae infected ticks and mice indicated differential regulation of brpA during the tick-mammalian infectious cycle. The surface localization was determined, and production of the protein within the salivary glands of the tick was demonstrated. We then applied a novel genetic system for B. turicatae to inactivate brpA and examined the role of the gene product for Vector colonization and the ability to establish murine infection. Conclusions/Significance: These results demonstrate the complexity of protein production in a population of spirochetes within the tick. Additionally, the development of a genetic system is important for future studies to evaluate the requirement of specific B. turicatae genes for Vector colonization and transmission.