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Godeleine Faugeron – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Histone H1 is dispensable for methylation-associated gene silencing in Ascobolus immersus and essential for long life span.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Jose L. Barra, Jean-luc Rossignol, Laïla Rhounim, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    A gene encoding a protein that shows sequence similarity with the histone H1 family only was cloned in Ascobolus immersus. The deduced peptide sequence presents the characteristic three-domain structure of metazoan linker histones, with a central globular region, an N-terminal tail, and a long positively charged C-terminal tail. By constructing an artificial duplication of this gene, named H1, it was possible to methylate and silence it by the MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) process. This resulted in the complete loss of the Ascobolus H1 histone. Mutant strains lacking H1 displayed normal methylation-associated gene silencing, underwent MIP, and showed the same methylation-associated chromatin modifications as did wild-type strains. However, they displayed an increased accessibility of micrococcal nuclease to chromatin, whether DNA was methylated or not, and exhibited a hypermethylation of the methylated genome compartment. These features are taken to imply that Ascobolus H1 histone is a ubiquitous component of chromatin which plays no role in methylation-associated gene silencing. Mutant strains lacking histone H1 reproduced normally through sexual crosses and displayed normal early vegetative growth. However, between 6 and 13 days after germination, they abruptly and consistently stopped growing, indicating that Ascobolus H1 histone is necessary for long life span. This constitutes the first observation of a physiologically important phenotype associated with the loss of H1.

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  • Masc2, a gene from Ascobolus encoding a protein with a DNA‐methyltransferase activity in vitro, is dispensable for in vivo methylation
    Molecular Microbiology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fabienne Malagnac, Jean-luc Rossignol, Christophe Goyon, Annie Grégoire, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    We have shown previously that masc1, a gene encoding a putative C5-DNA-methyltransferase (MTase), was necessary for the de novo ‘Methylation Induced Premeiotically’ (MIP) process and sexual reproduction in Ascobolus, whereas it was dispensable for maintenance methylation. A second MTase gene from Ascobolus, masc2, encodes a protein, Masc2, which possesses the large amino-terminal part characteristic of eukaryotic maintenance MTases. In vitro assays have shown that Masc2 displays a methylation activity, suggesting that it might be the MTase responsible for maintenance methylation. To check its function in vivo, we engineered a disruption of the masc2 gene. The resulting mutant strains did not exhibit any particular phenotype during either vegetative growth or sexual reproduction. Neither the masc2 mutation nor the double masc1 masc2 mutation had any detectable effect upon the maintenance of the pre-existing methylation of single gene copies previously subjected to MIP, natural retroelement-like repeats and tandemly repeated rDNA. The masc2 mutation did not alter either MIP or the other de novo methylation process that operates in vegetatives cells. Nor did it impair the meiotic process of methylation transfer. These results suggest that at least a third MTase gene responsible for maintenance and vegetative de novo methylation is present in Ascobolus.

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  • masc2 a gene from Ascobolus encoding a protein with a dna methyltransferase activity in vitro is dispensable for in vivo methylation
    Molecular Microbiology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fabienne Malagnac, Jean-luc Rossignol, Christophe Goyon, Annie Grégoire, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    We have shown previously that masc1, a gene encoding a putative C5-DNA-methyltransferase (MTase), was necessary for the de novo ‘Methylation Induced Premeiotically’ (MIP) process and sexual reproduction in Ascobolus, whereas it was dispensable for maintenance methylation. A second MTase gene from Ascobolus, masc2, encodes a protein, Masc2, which possesses the large amino-terminal part characteristic of eukaryotic maintenance MTases. In vitro assays have shown that Masc2 displays a methylation activity, suggesting that it might be the MTase responsible for maintenance methylation. To check its function in vivo, we engineered a disruption of the masc2 gene. The resulting mutant strains did not exhibit any particular phenotype during either vegetative growth or sexual reproduction. Neither the masc2 mutation nor the double masc1 masc2 mutation had any detectable effect upon the maintenance of the pre-existing methylation of single gene copies previously subjected to MIP, natural retroelement-like repeats and tandemly repeated rDNA. The masc2 mutation did not alter either MIP or the other de novo methylation process that operates in vegetatives cells. Nor did it impair the meiotic process of methylation transfer. These results suggest that at least a third MTase gene responsible for maintenance and vegetative de novo methylation is present in Ascobolus.

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Jean-luc Rossignol – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Histone H1 is dispensable for methylation-associated gene silencing in Ascobolus immersus and essential for long life span.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Jose L. Barra, Jean-luc Rossignol, Laïla Rhounim, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    A gene encoding a protein that shows sequence similarity with the histone H1 family only was cloned in Ascobolus immersus. The deduced peptide sequence presents the characteristic three-domain structure of metazoan linker histones, with a central globular region, an N-terminal tail, and a long positively charged C-terminal tail. By constructing an artificial duplication of this gene, named H1, it was possible to methylate and silence it by the MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) process. This resulted in the complete loss of the Ascobolus H1 histone. Mutant strains lacking H1 displayed normal methylation-associated gene silencing, underwent MIP, and showed the same methylation-associated chromatin modifications as did wild-type strains. However, they displayed an increased accessibility of micrococcal nuclease to chromatin, whether DNA was methylated or not, and exhibited a hypermethylation of the methylated genome compartment. These features are taken to imply that Ascobolus H1 histone is a ubiquitous component of chromatin which plays no role in methylation-associated gene silencing. Mutant strains lacking histone H1 reproduced normally through sexual crosses and displayed normal early vegetative growth. However, between 6 and 13 days after germination, they abruptly and consistently stopped growing, indicating that Ascobolus H1 histone is necessary for long life span. This constitutes the first observation of a physiologically important phenotype associated with the loss of H1.

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  • Masc2, a gene from Ascobolus encoding a protein with a DNA‐methyltransferase activity in vitro, is dispensable for in vivo methylation
    Molecular Microbiology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fabienne Malagnac, Jean-luc Rossignol, Christophe Goyon, Annie Grégoire, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    We have shown previously that masc1, a gene encoding a putative C5-DNA-methyltransferase (MTase), was necessary for the de novo ‘Methylation Induced Premeiotically’ (MIP) process and sexual reproduction in Ascobolus, whereas it was dispensable for maintenance methylation. A second MTase gene from Ascobolus, masc2, encodes a protein, Masc2, which possesses the large amino-terminal part characteristic of eukaryotic maintenance MTases. In vitro assays have shown that Masc2 displays a methylation activity, suggesting that it might be the MTase responsible for maintenance methylation. To check its function in vivo, we engineered a disruption of the masc2 gene. The resulting mutant strains did not exhibit any particular phenotype during either vegetative growth or sexual reproduction. Neither the masc2 mutation nor the double masc1 masc2 mutation had any detectable effect upon the maintenance of the pre-existing methylation of single gene copies previously subjected to MIP, natural retroelement-like repeats and tandemly repeated rDNA. The masc2 mutation did not alter either MIP or the other de novo methylation process that operates in vegetatives cells. Nor did it impair the meiotic process of methylation transfer. These results suggest that at least a third MTase gene responsible for maintenance and vegetative de novo methylation is present in Ascobolus.

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  • masc2 a gene from Ascobolus encoding a protein with a dna methyltransferase activity in vitro is dispensable for in vivo methylation
    Molecular Microbiology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fabienne Malagnac, Jean-luc Rossignol, Christophe Goyon, Annie Grégoire, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    We have shown previously that masc1, a gene encoding a putative C5-DNA-methyltransferase (MTase), was necessary for the de novo ‘Methylation Induced Premeiotically’ (MIP) process and sexual reproduction in Ascobolus, whereas it was dispensable for maintenance methylation. A second MTase gene from Ascobolus, masc2, encodes a protein, Masc2, which possesses the large amino-terminal part characteristic of eukaryotic maintenance MTases. In vitro assays have shown that Masc2 displays a methylation activity, suggesting that it might be the MTase responsible for maintenance methylation. To check its function in vivo, we engineered a disruption of the masc2 gene. The resulting mutant strains did not exhibit any particular phenotype during either vegetative growth or sexual reproduction. Neither the masc2 mutation nor the double masc1 masc2 mutation had any detectable effect upon the maintenance of the pre-existing methylation of single gene copies previously subjected to MIP, natural retroelement-like repeats and tandemly repeated rDNA. The masc2 mutation did not alter either MIP or the other de novo methylation process that operates in vegetatives cells. Nor did it impair the meiotic process of methylation transfer. These results suggest that at least a third MTase gene responsible for maintenance and vegetative de novo methylation is present in Ascobolus.

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Christophe Goyon – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Masc2, a gene from Ascobolus encoding a protein with a DNA‐methyltransferase activity in vitro, is dispensable for in vivo methylation
    Molecular Microbiology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fabienne Malagnac, Jean-luc Rossignol, Christophe Goyon, Annie Grégoire, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    We have shown previously that masc1, a gene encoding a putative C5-DNA-methyltransferase (MTase), was necessary for the de novo ‘Methylation Induced Premeiotically’ (MIP) process and sexual reproduction in Ascobolus, whereas it was dispensable for maintenance methylation. A second MTase gene from Ascobolus, masc2, encodes a protein, Masc2, which possesses the large amino-terminal part characteristic of eukaryotic maintenance MTases. In vitro assays have shown that Masc2 displays a methylation activity, suggesting that it might be the MTase responsible for maintenance methylation. To check its function in vivo, we engineered a disruption of the masc2 gene. The resulting mutant strains did not exhibit any particular phenotype during either vegetative growth or sexual reproduction. Neither the masc2 mutation nor the double masc1 masc2 mutation had any detectable effect upon the maintenance of the pre-existing methylation of single gene copies previously subjected to MIP, natural retroelement-like repeats and tandemly repeated rDNA. The masc2 mutation did not alter either MIP or the other de novo methylation process that operates in vegetatives cells. Nor did it impair the meiotic process of methylation transfer. These results suggest that at least a third MTase gene responsible for maintenance and vegetative de novo methylation is present in Ascobolus.

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  • masc2 a gene from Ascobolus encoding a protein with a dna methyltransferase activity in vitro is dispensable for in vivo methylation
    Molecular Microbiology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fabienne Malagnac, Jean-luc Rossignol, Christophe Goyon, Annie Grégoire, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    We have shown previously that masc1, a gene encoding a putative C5-DNA-methyltransferase (MTase), was necessary for the de novo ‘Methylation Induced Premeiotically’ (MIP) process and sexual reproduction in Ascobolus, whereas it was dispensable for maintenance methylation. A second MTase gene from Ascobolus, masc2, encodes a protein, Masc2, which possesses the large amino-terminal part characteristic of eukaryotic maintenance MTases. In vitro assays have shown that Masc2 displays a methylation activity, suggesting that it might be the MTase responsible for maintenance methylation. To check its function in vivo, we engineered a disruption of the masc2 gene. The resulting mutant strains did not exhibit any particular phenotype during either vegetative growth or sexual reproduction. Neither the masc2 mutation nor the double masc1 masc2 mutation had any detectable effect upon the maintenance of the pre-existing methylation of single gene copies previously subjected to MIP, natural retroelement-like repeats and tandemly repeated rDNA. The masc2 mutation did not alter either MIP or the other de novo methylation process that operates in vegetatives cells. Nor did it impair the meiotic process of methylation transfer. These results suggest that at least a third MTase gene responsible for maintenance and vegetative de novo methylation is present in Ascobolus.

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  • NATIVE DNA REPEATS AND METHYLATION IN Ascobolus
    Nucleic Acids Research, 1996
    Co-Authors: Christophe Goyon, Jean-luc Rossignol, Godeleine Faugeron

    Abstract:

    We identified two classes of native dispersed DNA repeats in the Ascobolus genome. The first class consisted of several kilobase long, methylated repeats. These repeats, named Mars (methylated Ascobolus repeated sequences), fell in one family of LINE-like elements and in three families of LTR-containing retrotransposable elements. The methylation features of Mars elements were those expected if they were natural targets for the MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) previously discovered in Ascobolus. The second class consisted of short repeats, approximately 100 bp long, corresponding to 5S rRNA and tRNA genes. As expected from their size, which was too small to allow MIP to occur, they were unmethylated, as were 26 kb of unique sequences tested. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that MIP is targeted at natural DNA repeats and constitutes a defensive process against the detrimental consequences of the spreading of mobile elements throughout the genome. The 9 kb tandem repeats harbouring the 28S, 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes displayed methylation features suggesting that rDNA methylation proceeds through a process other than MIP.

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