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Balazs Harrach – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Identification of two novel adenoviruses in smooth-billed ani and tropical screech owl.
    PLOS ONE, 2020
    Co-Authors: Ana Paula Oliveira, Balazs Harrach, Márton Z. Vidovszky, Maria Cristina Valdetaro Rangel, João Luiz Rossi, Fernando Vicentini, Győző L. Kaján

    Abstract:

    Avian adenoviruses (AdVs) are a very diverse group of pathogens causing diseases in poultry and wild birds. Wild birds, endangered by habitat loss and habitat fragmentation in the tropical forests, are recognised to play a role in the transmission of various AdVs. In this study, two novel, hitherto unknown AdVs were described from faecal samples of smooth-billed ani and tropical screech owl. The former was classified into genus Aviadenovirus, the latter into genus Atadenovirus, and both viruses most probably represent new AdV species as well. These results show that there is very limited information about the biodiversity of AdVs in tropical wild birds, though viruses might have a major effect on the population of their hosts or endanger even domesticated animals. Surveys like this provide new insights into the diversity, evolution, host variety, and distribution of avian AdVs.

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  • The complete genome sequence of bearded dragon adenovirus 1 harbors three genes encoding proteins of the C-type lectin-like domain superfamily.
    Infection Genetics and Evolution, 2020
    Co-Authors: Judit J. Penzes, Leonora Szirovicza, Balazs Harrach

    Abstract:

    Abstract Bearded dragon adenovirus 1 (BDAdV-1), also known as agamid adenovirus 1, has been described worldwide as a prevalent infectious agent of the inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), the most common squamate exotic pet reptile. Previous limited sequence data of the adenoviral DNA polymerase and hexon genes indicated that BDAdV-1 is a member of genus Atadenovirus family Adenoviridae. Atadenoviruses infect ruminants, marsupials, testudine reptiles and birds, yet the genus has been shown to be of squamate reptile origin. Here, we report a screening survey along with the complete genome sequence of BDAdV-1, derived directly from the sample of a deceased juvenile dragon showing central nervous system signs prior to passing. The BDAdV-1 genome is 35,276 bp and contains 32 putative genes. Its genome organization is characteristic of the members of genus Atadenovirus, however, a divergent LH3 gene indicates structural interactions of different nature compared to other genus members such as snake adenovirus 1. We identified five novel open reading frames (ORFs), three of which encode proteins of the C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) superfamily. ORF3 has a CTLD group II-like domain architecture displaying structural similarity with natural killer cell surface receptors and with an alphaherpesviral virulence factor gene for neurotropism, UL45. ORF4 and 6 are extremely long compared to typical adenoviral right-end genes and possibly encode members of the CTLD superfamily with novel, previously undescribed domain architectures. BDAdV-1 is the hitherto most divergent member of genus Atadenovirus providing new insights on adenoviral diversity, evolution and pathogenesis.

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  • Adenoviruses across the animal kingdom: a walk in the zoo.
    FEBS Letters, 2019
    Co-Authors: Balazs Harrach, Zoltán László Tarján, Maria Benkő

    Abstract:

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) infect representatives of numerous species from almost every major vertebrate class, albeit their incidence shows great variability. AdVs infecting birds, reptiles, and bats are the most common and diverse, whereas only one AdV has been so far isolated both from fish and amphibians. The family Adenoviridae is divided into five genera, each corresponding to an independent evolutionary lineage that supposedly coevolved with its respective vertebrate hosts. Members of genera Mastadenovirus and Aviadenovirus seem to infect exclusively mammals and birds, respectively. The genus Ichtadenovirus includes the single known AdV from fish. The majority of AdVs in the genus Atadenovirus originated from squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes), but also certain mammalian and avian AdVs are classified within this genus. The genus Siadenovirus contains the only AdV isolated from frog, along with numerous avian AdVs. In turtles, members of a sixth AdV lineage have been discovered, pending official recognition as an independent genus. The most likely scenario for AdV evolution includes long-term cospeciation with the hosts, as well as occasional switches between closely or, rarely, more distantly related hosts.

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Gerald W. Both – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Potent antietumor immunity in mice induced by vaccination with an ovine Atadenovirus vector.
    Journal of Immunotherapy, 2012
    Co-Authors: Rongying Tang, Gerald W. Both, Michelle Wilson, John A. Taylor, Sarah L. Young

    Abstract:

    Identification of adenoviral isolates of nonhuman origin has fostered development of vectors with potential to overcome preexisting immunity in the human population that may affect clinical applications. Ovine adenoviral isolate, OAdV287 (OAdV7), the prototype of the genus Atadenovirus, has been previously characterized as a gene delivery vector although the receptor(s) used for infection remain to be identified. Here, we report the first use of recombinant OAdV7 as a vaccine for inducing an antitumor immune response in a mouse model. Treatment of murine BMDC with OAdV7 vectors expressing ovalbumin (OVA) resulted in upregulation of costimulatory markers and production of IL-12. Splenocytes isolated from immunized mice responded to antigen restimulation in vitro by proliferation and production of IFNγ. In vivo cytotoxicity assays revealed efficient killing of antigenic peptide-pulsed target cells 1 week after immunization, with an average killing efficiency of 75%. In mice inoculated with B16-OVA tumor cells immunization with OAdV7-OVA retarded and essentially prevented tumor growth in prophylactic and therapeutic tumor trials, respectively. Generation of a robust memory response was confirmed on tumor rechallenge in the prophylactic model. Therefore, OAdV7 is a novel vector with potential for further development of tumor vaccines.

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  • Optimizing HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell induction by recombinant BCG in prime-boost regimens with heterologous viral vectors
    European Journal of Immunology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Richard Hopkins, Gerald W. Both, Anne Bridgeman, Charles Bourne, Alice Mbewe-mvula, Jerald C. Sadoff, Joan Joseph, John Fulkerson, Tomas Hanke

    Abstract:

    The desire to induce HIV-1-specific responses soon after birth to prevent breast milk transmission of HIV-1 led us to propose a vaccine regimen which primes HIV-1-specific T cells using a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine. Because attenuated live bacterial vaccines are typically not sufficiently immunogenic as stand-alone vaccines, rBCG-primed T cells will likely require boost immunization(s). Here, we compared modified Danish (AERAS-401) and Pasteur lysine auxotroph (222) strains of BCG expressing the immunogen HIVA for their potency to prime HIV-1-specific responses in adult BALB/c mice and examined four heterologous boosting HIVA vaccines for their immunogenic synergy. We found that both BCG.HIVA401 and BCG.HIVA222 primed HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell-mediated responses. The strongest boosts were delivered by human adenovirus-vectored HAdV5.HIVA and sheep Atadenovirus-vectored OAdV7.HIVA vaccines, followed by poxvirus MVA.HIVA; the weakest was plasmid pTH.HIVA DNA. The prime-boost regimens induced T cells capable of efficient in vivo killing of sensitized target cells. We also observed that the BCG.HIVA401 and BCG.HIVA222 vaccines have broadly similar immunologic properties, but display a number of differences mainly detected through distinct profiles of soluble intercellular signaling molecules produced by immune splenocytes in response to both HIV-1- and BCG-specific stimuli. These results encourage further development of the rBCG prime-boost regimen.

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  • Induction of Both Cellular and Humoral Immunity following a Rational Prime-Boost Immunization Regimen That Incorporates Recombinant Ovine Atadenovirus and Fowlpox Virus
    Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Cara K. Fraser, Gerald W. Both, Kerrilyn R. Diener, Erin L. Lousberg, Larry Ward, Michael P. Brown, John D. Hayball

    Abstract:

    Recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV) and ovine Atadenoviruses (rOAdV) are being developed as safe, nonpathogenic, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine vectors. There is scope, however, to improve the limited immune responses elicited by each of these vaccine vectors. Using previously determined and optimized routes of administration and viral doses, we characterized the primary adaptive immune responses elicited by recombinant variants of each virus. We demonstrate the contrasting nature of the response elicited by each recombinant virus. Whereas rFPV generates predominately cell-mediated immunity to our nominal target antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), rOAdV drives strong humoral responses. By defining the time taken to achieve maximal cytotoxic T cell responses and by studying the different patterns and kinetics of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted OVA antigen expression postimmunization, we proposed a heterologous prime-boost regimen of immunization with rOAdV followed by rFPV. The subsequent experimental results showed that this approach produced robust cell-mediated and humoral immune responses against OVA that, importantly, were accompanied by weak anti-viral vector antibody responses. These results, therefore, represent a novel and potentially clinically applicable way to achieve broadly based and effective immunity to the antigens encoded by vectored vaccines.

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Maria Benkő – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adenoviruses across the animal kingdom: a walk in the zoo.
    FEBS Letters, 2019
    Co-Authors: Balazs Harrach, Zoltán László Tarján, Maria Benkő

    Abstract:

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) infect representatives of numerous species from almost every major vertebrate class, albeit their incidence shows great variability. AdVs infecting birds, reptiles, and bats are the most common and diverse, whereas only one AdV has been so far isolated both from fish and amphibians. The family Adenoviridae is divided into five genera, each corresponding to an independent evolutionary lineage that supposedly coevolved with its respective vertebrate hosts. Members of genera Mastadenovirus and Aviadenovirus seem to infect exclusively mammals and birds, respectively. The genus Ichtadenovirus includes the single known AdV from fish. The majority of AdVs in the genus Atadenovirus originated from squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes), but also certain mammalian and avian AdVs are classified within this genus. The genus Siadenovirus contains the only AdV isolated from frog, along with numerous avian AdVs. In turtles, members of a sixth AdV lineage have been discovered, pending official recognition as an independent genus. The most likely scenario for AdV evolution includes long-term cospeciation with the hosts, as well as occasional switches between closely or, rarely, more distantly related hosts.

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  • Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)
    PLOS ONE, 2016
    Co-Authors: Leonora Szirovicza, Maria Benkő, Pilar López, Renata Kopena, José Martín, Judit J. Penzes

    Abstract:

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate Atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of Atadenoviruses.

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  • Crystal structure of raptor adenovirus 1 fibre head and role of the beta-hairpin in siadenovirus fibre head domains
    Virology Journal, 2016
    Co-Authors: T. H. Nguyen, Balazs Harrach, Maria Benkő, Mónika Z. Ballmann, Huyen T., Hai N. Truong, Mark J. Van Raaij

    Abstract:

    Background
    Most adenoviruses recognize their host cells via an interaction of their fibre head domains with a primary receptor. The structural framework of adenovirus fibre heads is conserved between the different adenovirus genera for which crystal structures have been determined (Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus and Siadenovirus), but genus-specific differences have also been observed. The only known siadenovirus fibre head structure, that of turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), revealed a twisted beta-sandwich resembling the reovirus fibre head architecture more than that of other adenovirus fibre heads, plus a unique beta-hairpin embracing a neighbouring monomer. The TAdV-3 fibre head was shown to bind sialyllactose.

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