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Filippo Aureli – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • There is no other monkey in the mirror for spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi).
    Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Lindsay Murray, Filippo Aureli, Colleen M. Schaffner, Federica Amici

    Abstract:

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), usually considered a marker of self-awareness, occurs in several species and may reflect a capacity that has evolved in small incremental steps. In line with research on human development and building on previous research adopting a gradualist framework, we categorized the initial mirror responses of naive spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) according to four levels. We compared social, exploratory, contingent and self-exploratory responses to a mirror and faux mirror during three short trials. If spider monkeys respond as most monkey species, we predicted they would perform at level 0, mainly showing social behavior toward their mirror-image. However, because spider monkeys show enhancement of certain cognitive skills comparable to those of great ape species, we predicted that they would perform at level 1a (showing exploratory behavior) or 1b (showing contingent behavior). GLMMs revealed that monkeys looked behind and visually inspected the mirror significantly more in the mirror than the faux mirror condition. Although the monkeys engaged in contingent body movements at the mirror, this trend was not significant. Strikingly, they showed no social behaviors toward their mirror-image. We also measured self-scratching as an indicator of anxiety and found no differences in frequencies of self-scratching between conditions. Therefore, in contrast to most findings on other species, spider monkeys did not treat their image as another monkey during their initial exposure to the mirror. In fact, they reached at least level 1a within minutes of mirror exposure. These responses recommend spider monkeys as good candidates for further explorations into monkey self-recognition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

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  • Predation Attacks on Wild Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi).
    Folia Primatologica, 2018
    Co-Authors: Laura Busia, Filippo Aureli, Sandra E. Smith-aguilar, Colleen M. Schaffner, Gabriel Ramos-fernández

    Abstract:

    We report 2 cases of predation on an adult and a subadult spider monkey (Ateles Geoffroyi) by a puma (Puma concolor) and an unidentified terrestrial predator at the natural protected area of Otoch Ma’ax yetel Kooh, in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Although spider monkeys are believed to experience overall low predation pressure compared to other primate species, our observations show that predation occurs in the study area and therefore behavioral strategies are likely to be in place to reduce predation risk. Our observations are further evidence that terrestrial predators are a threat for both young and full-grown spider monkeys.

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  • How Survey Design Affects Monkey Counts: A Case Study on Individually Recognized Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi).
    Folia Primatologica, 2017
    Co-Authors: Denise Spaan, Gabriel Ramos-fernández, Colleen M. Schaffner, Braulio Pinacho-guendulain, Filippo Aureli

    Abstract:

    The fast movement and high degree of fission-fusion dynamics of spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) make them notoriously difficult to survey. We examined which aspects of survey design affect spider monkey sightings along transects in a group of individually recognized spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) in Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. We calculated the number of monkeys and subgroups sighted per transect walk. Using generalized linear models, we found no effect of the number of observers, transect type (new vs. existing), walking speed, or time of day on individual monkey counts or subgroup counts. Recounting of individuals was relatively rare and occurred when transects were walked relatively slowly. We missed more young than adult monkeys. The group composition based on survey data was similar to the known group composition. Based on our findings we recommend that surveys performed on relatively flat terrain be conducted at speeds similar to or faster than the moving speed of spider monkeys to minimize recounting of individuals and that young:adult female ratios based on survey data be interpreted as conservative indicators of population health. The novel methods presented to determine sources of bias in population estimates are applicable to a wide range of primates that are difficult to survey.

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Gabriel Ramos-fernández – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Predation Attacks on Wild Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi).
    Folia Primatologica, 2018
    Co-Authors: Laura Busia, Filippo Aureli, Sandra E. Smith-aguilar, Colleen M. Schaffner, Gabriel Ramos-fernández

    Abstract:

    We report 2 cases of predation on an adult and a subadult spider monkey (Ateles Geoffroyi) by a puma (Puma concolor) and an unidentified terrestrial predator at the natural protected area of Otoch Ma’ax yetel Kooh, in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Although spider monkeys are believed to experience overall low predation pressure compared to other primate species, our observations show that predation occurs in the study area and therefore behavioral strategies are likely to be in place to reduce predation risk. Our observations are further evidence that terrestrial predators are a threat for both young and full-grown spider monkeys.

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  • How Survey Design Affects Monkey Counts: A Case Study on Individually Recognized Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi).
    Folia Primatologica, 2017
    Co-Authors: Denise Spaan, Gabriel Ramos-fernández, Colleen M. Schaffner, Braulio Pinacho-guendulain, Filippo Aureli

    Abstract:

    The fast movement and high degree of fission-fusion dynamics of spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) make them notoriously difficult to survey. We examined which aspects of survey design affect spider monkey sightings along transects in a group of individually recognized spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) in Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. We calculated the number of monkeys and subgroups sighted per transect walk. Using generalized linear models, we found no effect of the number of observers, transect type (new vs. existing), walking speed, or time of day on individual monkey counts or subgroup counts. Recounting of individuals was relatively rare and occurred when transects were walked relatively slowly. We missed more young than adult monkeys. The group composition based on survey data was similar to the known group composition. Based on our findings we recommend that surveys performed on relatively flat terrain be conducted at speeds similar to or faster than the moving speed of spider monkeys to minimize recounting of individuals and that young:adult female ratios based on survey data be interpreted as conservative indicators of population health. The novel methods presented to determine sources of bias in population estimates are applicable to a wide range of primates that are difficult to survey.

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  • Influence of Fruit Availability on the Fission–Fusion Dynamics of Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi)
    International Journal of Primatology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Braulio Pinacho-guendulain, Gabriel Ramos-fernández

    Abstract:

    Socioecological theory proposes that the flexibility in grouping patterns afforded by fission–fusion dynamics allows animals to cope with spatiotemporal variability in food abundance. We investigate the influence of fruit tree abundance and foraging environment heterogeneity on fission–fusion dynamics in a group of spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. We collected 1300 h of behavioral data and 23 samples of biweekly ecological data from August 2009 to July 2010. We measured fission–fusion dynamics through the temporal variation in the size and composition of subgroups, the spatial dispersion within and between subgroups, and the frequency of fissions and fusions. We measured habitat-wide food abundance of preferred species, including two that differ greatly in their relative abundance: Brosimum alicastrum (a hyperabundant resource) and Ficus spp. (a not so abundant resource but often represented by large trees). We evaluated the foraging environment heterogeneity through the variance in the number of trees with fruit between species. Our results show that, although habitat-wide food abundance is important, the availability of key resources strongly influences the spider monkeys’ fission–fusion dynamics. When there was a high abundance of fruit of Brosimum, subgroups tended to be more stable, smaller, and mixed sex, and their members remained close. In contrast, when Brosimum trees with fruit were scarce, females often formed large, more fluid and dispersed subgroups. Foraging environment heterogeneity had a positive effect on within-subgroup spatial dispersion and rates of fission and fusion. The complex relationships we have uncovered suggest that the flexibility afforded by fission–fusion dynamics is an adaptation to highly variable foraging environments.

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Shoji Kawamura – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • color vision polymorphism in wild capuchins cebus capucinus and spider monkeys Ateles Geoffroyi in costa rica
    American Journal of Primatology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Chihiro Hiramatsu, Toko Tsutsui, Yoshifumi Matsumoto, Filippo Aureli, Linda Marie Fedigan, Shoji Kawamura

    Abstract:

    New World monkeys are unique in exhibiting a color vision polymorphism due to an allelic variation of the red-green visual pigment gene. This makes these monkeys excellent subjects for studying the adaptive evolution of the visual system from both molecular and ecological viewpoints. However, the allele frequencies of the pigments within a natural population have not been well investigated. As a first step toward understanding the relationship between vision and behavior, we conducted color vision typing by analyzing fecal DNA from two wild groups of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) and one group of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) inhabiting Santa Rosa National Park of Costa Rica. All color-typed monkeys were individually identified. In C. capucinus and A. Geoffroyi we found three and two pigment types, respectively, and the spectral mechanism that created one of the two Ateles pigments was found to be novel. In one Cebus group and the Ateles group, all alleles were present, whereas in the other Cebus group only two alleles were found, with one allele predominating. This was likely due to the effect of close inbreeding, indicating that wild populations can exhibit a variety of allele compositions. This result also suggests that the color vision polymorphism can be easily distorted by natural factors, such as inbreeding, skewing the population structure.

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  • Color‐vision polymorphism in wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) in Costa Rica
    American Journal of Primatology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Chihiro Hiramatsu, Toko Tsutsui, Yoshifumi Matsumoto, Filippo Aureli, Linda Marie Fedigan, Shoji Kawamura

    Abstract:

    New World monkeys are unique in exhibiting a color vision polymorphism due to an allelic variation of the red-green visual pigment gene. This makes these monkeys excellent subjects for studying the adaptive evolution of the visual system from both molecular and ecological viewpoints. However, the allele frequencies of the pigments within a natural population have not been well investigated. As a first step toward understanding the relationship between vision and behavior, we conducted color vision typing by analyzing fecal DNA from two wild groups of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) and one group of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) inhabiting Santa Rosa National Park of Costa Rica. All color-typed monkeys were individually identified. In C. capucinus and A. Geoffroyi we found three and two pigment types, respectively, and the spectral mechanism that created one of the two Ateles pigments was found to be novel. In one Cebus group and the Ateles group, all alleles were present, whereas in the other Cebus group only two alleles were found, with one allele predominating. This was likely due to the effect of close inbreeding, indicating that wild populations can exhibit a variety of allele compositions. This result also suggests that the color vision polymorphism can be easily distorted by natural factors, such as inbreeding, skewing the population structure.

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