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Kazunori Kodama – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • japanese legacy cohorts the life span study Atomic Bomb survivor cohort and survivors offspring
    Journal of Epidemiology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Kotaro Ozasa, Eric J. Grant, Kazunori Kodama

    Abstract:

    Cohorts of Atomic Bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of Atomic Bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic Bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the Bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  • Cardiovascular disease among Atomic Bomb survivors
    International Journal of Radiation Biology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Kotaro Ozasa, Ikuno Takahashi, Eric J. Grant, Kazunori Kodama

    Abstract:

    AbstractPurpose: The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of Atomic Bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects. It is also likely that this cohort has been affected by the difficult conditions experienced in the aftermath of the war and Atomic Bombings. In this article, we tried to make a consistent interpretation of epidemiological findings of Atomic Bomb radiation effects on cardiovascular disease.Conclusion: Among the Atomic Bomb survivors, radiation exposure was associated with some cardiovascular diseases that are often associated with hypertension, and dose response appeared to be primarily non-linear among those w…

  • radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk hiroshima and nagasaki Atomic Bomb survivor data 1950 2003
    BMJ, 2010
    Co-Authors: Yukiko Shimizu, Ritsu Sakata, Kazunori Kodama, Eric J. Grant, Midori Soda, Nobuo Nishi, Fumiyoshi Kasagi, Akihiko Suyama, Hiromi Sugiyama, Hiroko Moriwaki

    Abstract:

    Objective To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. Design Prospective cohort study with more than 50 years of follow-up. Setting Atomic Bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants 86 611 Life Span Study cohort members with individually estimated radiation doses from 0 to >3 Gy (86% received Main outcome measures Mortality from stroke or heart disease as the underlying cause of death and dose-response relations with Atomic Bomb radiation. Results About 9600 participants died of stroke and 8400 died of heart disease between 1950 and 2003. For stroke, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 9% (95% confidence interval 1% to 17%, P=0.02) on the basis of a linear dose-response model, but an indication of possible upward curvature suggested relatively little risk at low doses. For heart disease, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 14% (6% to 23%, P Conclusion Doses above 0.5 Gy are associated with an elevated risk of both stroke and heart disease, but the degree of risk at lower doses is unclear. Stroke and heart disease together account for about one third as many radiation associated excess deaths as do cancers among Atomic Bomb survivors.

Midori Soda – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki Atomic Bomb survivors
    Cancer Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Hisayoshi Kondo, Mariko Mine, Midori Soda, Kenichi Yokota

    Abstract:

    Atomic Bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in Atomic Bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between Atomic Bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki Atomic Bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (

  • risk of myelodysplastic syndromes in people exposed to ionizing radiation a retrospective cohort study of nagasaki Atomic Bomb survivors
    Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Masako Iwanaga, Midori Soda, Wanling Hsu, Yumi Takasaki, Masayuki Tawara, Tatsuro Joh, Tatsuhiko Amenomori, Masaomi Yamamura, Yoshiharu Yoshida, T Koba

    Abstract:

    Purpose The risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has not been fully investigated among people exposed to ionizing radiation. We investigate MDS risk and radiation dose-response in Japanese Atomic Bomb survivors. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using two databases of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb survivors: 64,026 people with known exposure distance in the database of Nagasaki University AtomicBomb Disease Institute (ABDI) and 22,245 people with estimated radiation dose in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS). Patients with MDS diagnosed from 1985 to 2004 were identified by record linkage between the cohorts and the Nagasaki Prefecture Cancer Registry. Cox and Poisson regression models were used to estimate relationships between exposure distance or dose and MDS risk. Results There were 151 patients with MDS in the ABDI cohort and 47 patients with MDS in the LSS cohort. MDS rate increased inversely with exposure distance, with an excess relative risk …

  • radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk hiroshima and nagasaki Atomic Bomb survivor data 1950 2003
    BMJ, 2010
    Co-Authors: Yukiko Shimizu, Ritsu Sakata, Kazunori Kodama, Eric J. Grant, Midori Soda, Nobuo Nishi, Fumiyoshi Kasagi, Akihiko Suyama, Hiromi Sugiyama, Hiroko Moriwaki

    Abstract:

    Objective To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. Design Prospective cohort study with more than 50 years of follow-up. Setting Atomic Bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants 86 611 Life Span Study cohort members with individually estimated radiation doses from 0 to >3 Gy (86% received Main outcome measures Mortality from stroke or heart disease as the underlying cause of death and dose-response relations with Atomic Bomb radiation. Results About 9600 participants died of stroke and 8400 died of heart disease between 1950 and 2003. For stroke, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 9% (95% confidence interval 1% to 17%, P=0.02) on the basis of a linear dose-response model, but an indication of possible upward curvature suggested relatively little risk at low doses. For heart disease, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 14% (6% to 23%, P Conclusion Doses above 0.5 Gy are associated with an elevated risk of both stroke and heart disease, but the degree of risk at lower doses is unclear. Stroke and heart disease together account for about one third as many radiation associated excess deaths as do cancers among Atomic Bomb survivors.

Dale L. Preston – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • solid cancer incidence in Atomic Bomb survivors 1958 1998
    Radiation Research, 2007
    Co-Authors: Dale L. Preston, Midori Soda, Elaine Ron, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Shoji Tokuoka, Sachiyo Funamoto, Nobuo Nishi, Kazunori Kodama

    Abstract:

    Abstract Preston, D. L., Ron, E., Tokuoka, S., Funamoto, S., Nishi, N., Soda, M., Mabuchi, K. and Kodama, K. Solid Cancer Incidence in Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958–1998. Radiat. Res. 168, 1–64 (2007). This is the second general report on radiation effects on the incidence of solid cancers (cancers other than malignancies of the blood or blood-forming organs) among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bomb survivors. The analyses were based on 17,448 first primary cancers (including non-melanoma skin cancer) diagnosed from 1958 through 1998 among 105,427 cohort members with individual dose estimates who were alive and not known to have had cancer prior to 1958. Radiation-associated relative risks and excess rates were considered for all solid cancers as a group, for 19 specific cancer sites or groups of sites, and for five histology groups. Poisson regression methods were used to investigate the magnitude of the radiation-associated risks, the shape of the dose respon…

  • dose estimation for Atomic Bomb survivor studies its evolution and present status
    Radiation Research, 2006
    Co-Authors: Harry M Cullings, Eric J. Grant, Shoichiro Fujita, Sachiyo Funamoto, George D Kerr, Dale L. Preston

    Abstract:

    Abstract Cullings, H. M., Fujita, S., Funamoto, S., Grant, E. J., Kerr, G. D. and Preston, D. L. Dose Estimation for Atomic Bomb Survivor Studies: Its Evolution and Present Status. Radiat. Res. 166, 219–254 (2006). In the decade after the Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, several large cohorts of survivors were organized for studies of radiation health effects. The U.S. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its U.S./Japan successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have performed continuous studies since then, with extensive efforts to collect data on survivor locations and shielding and to create systems to estimate individual doses from the Bombs’ neutrons and γ rays. Several successive systems have been developed by extramural working groups and collaboratively implemented by ABCC and RERF investigators. We describe the cohorts and the history and evolution of dose estimation from early efforts through the newest system, DS02, emphasizing the technical development and use of DS0…

  • stable chromosome aberrations in Atomic Bomb survivors results from 25 years of investigation
    Radiation Research, 2001
    Co-Authors: Yoshiaki Kodama, Takeo Honda, Dale L. Preston, David J Pawel, Nori Nakamura, Masahiro Itoh, Mimako Nakano, Kazuo Ohtaki, Sachiyo Funamoto

    Abstract:

    Abstract Kodama, Y., Pawel, D., Nakamura, N., Preston, D., Honda, T., Itoh, M., Nakano, M., Ohtaki, K., Funamoto, S. and Awa, A. A. Stable Chromosome Aberrations in Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from 25 Years of Investigation. Radiat. Res. 156, 337–346 (2001). Frequencies of stable chromosome aberrations from more than 3,000 Atomic Bomb survivors were used to examine the nature of the radiation dose response. The end point was the proportion of cells with at least one translocation or inversion detected in Giemsa-stained cultures of approximately 100 lymphocytes per person. The statistical methods allow for both imprecision of individual dose estimates and extra-binomial variation. A highly significant and nonlinear dose response was seen. The shape of the dose response was concave upward for doses below 1.5 Sv but exhibited some leveling off at higher doses. This curvature was similar for the two cities, with a crossover dose (i.e. the ratio of the linear coefficient to the quadratic coefficient) of 1.7…