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Average Particle Size

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Sang Eon Park – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • effect of the Average Particle Size and the surface oxidation layer of silicon on the colloidal silica Particle through direct oxidation
    Materials Science and Engineering B-advanced Functional Solid-state Materials, 2009
    Co-Authors: Won Kyun Na, Sang Eon Park

    Abstract:

    Abstract Colloidal silica was prepared using a direct oxidation process of silicon powders with different purities, Average Particle Sizes, and surface oxidation layer thicknesses in a water solvent with the base catalysts. Purities of 97.00–99.96% and Average Particle Sizes of 200 and 500 mesh of silicon starting materials were evaluated. The materials were thermally oxidized for 3, 16, and 30 h to observe the effect of the surface oxidation layer on the formation of colloidal silica. The longer the thermal oxidation time, the higher the oxide layer thickness on the silicon, and the larger the Average Size of silica Particle observed in the product of colloidal silica when silicon Particles had the oxide layer up to approximately 50 nm. When the oxide film was higher than 50 nm, the silica Particle Size did not increase with an increase in the oxide layer of silicon. The dependence of the Average Particle silica Size on the oxide layer thickness of silicon was observed to be smaller in the colloidal silica from the 200 mesh Size of silicon than from the 500 mesh Size. The Average Particle Size of silicon was found to affect the Average Particle Size of silica in the direct oxidation, however the correlation between the purity of silicon and the Average Particle Size of silica was not determined as it fell outside the range of this experiment.

Yuheng Zhang – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Infrared transmittance spectra of the granular perovskite
    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 1998
    Co-Authors: Kebin Li, Rongsheng Cheng, Shouguo Wang, Yuheng Zhang

    Abstract:

    Infrared (IR) transmittance spectra were measured for a series of samples with different Particle Sizes. Two extra absorption peaks appear when the Average Particle Size of the samples is smaller than 60 nm; these peaks can be ascribed to the surface stretching and bending modes of the octahedra. When the Average Particle Size decreases, the absorption strength of the surface modes increases while that of the bulk modes reduces.

  • Infrared transmittance spectra of the granular perovskite La2/3Ca1/3MnO3
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, 1998
    Co-Authors: Kebin Li, Rongsheng Cheng, Shouguo Wang, Yuheng Zhang

    Abstract:

    Infrared (IR) transmittance spectra were measured for a series of ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/0953-8984/10/19/019/img10.gif] samples with different Particle Sizes. Two extra absorption peaks appear when the Average Particle Size of the samples is smaller than 60 nm; these peaks can be ascribed to the surface stretching and bending modes of the ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/0953-8984/10/19/019/img11.gif] octahedra. When the Average Particle Size decreases, the absorption strength of the surface modes increases while that of the bulk modes reduces.

Salmah Yusof – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Optimization of the contents of Arabic gum, xanthan gum and orange oil affecting turbidity, Average Particle Size, polydispersity index and density in orange beverage emulsion
    Food Hydrocolloids, 2008
    Co-Authors: Hamed Mirhosseini, Nazimah Hamid, Salmah Yusof

    Abstract:

    This paper focuses on the development of an effective methodology to determine the optimum levels of three independent variables leading to (a) maximize turbidity, (b) minimize polydispersity index (PDI) and (c) obtain the target value for Average Particle Size and density of orange beverage emulsion. A three-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to determine the effect of Arabic gum content (7–13% w/w), xanthan gum content (0.1–0.3% w/w) and orange oil content (6–10% w/w). The emulsion properties studied as response variables were: turbidity (Y1), Average Particle Size (Y2), PDI (Y3) and density (Y4). The response surface analysis was carried out to create efficient empirical models for predicting the changes of response variables. In general, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficients of determination values (R2) in the range of 0.922–0.975 for the response surface models, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression models with the experimental data. The results of regression analysis indicated that more than 92% the response variation could be explained by the models. The results also indicated that the linear term of xanthan gum was the most significant (p

  • optimization of the contents of arabic gum xanthan gum and orange oil affecting turbidity Average Particle Size polydispersity index and density in orange beverage emulsion
    Food Hydrocolloids, 2008
    Co-Authors: Hamed Mirhosseini, Nazimah Hamid, Salmah Yusof

    Abstract:

    This paper focuses on the development of an effective methodology to determine the optimum levels of three independent variables leading to (a) maximize turbidity, (b) minimize polydispersity index (PDI) and (c) obtain the target value for Average Particle Size and density of orange beverage emulsion. A three-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to determine the effect of Arabic gum content (7–13% w/w), xanthan gum content (0.1–0.3% w/w) and orange oil content (6–10% w/w). The emulsion properties studied as response variables were: turbidity (Y1), Average Particle Size (Y2), PDI (Y3) and density (Y4). The response surface analysis was carried out to create efficient empirical models for predicting the changes of response variables. In general, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficients of determination values (R2) in the range of 0.922–0.975 for the response surface models, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression models with the experimental data. The results of regression analysis indicated that more than 92% the response variation could be explained by the models. The results also indicated that the linear term of xanthan gum was the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the overall responses. The multiple optimization results showed that the overall optimum region with high total desirability (D=0.92) was found to be at the combined level of 13.88% w/w Arabic gum content, 0.27% w/w xanthan gum content and 11.27% w/w orange oil content. Under the optimum condition, the corresponding predicted response values for turbidity, Average Particle Size, PDI and density of the desirable orange beverage emulsion were 129.55, 988, 0.261 and 1.03, respectively. For validation of the models, the experimental values were compared with predicted values to check the adequacy of the models. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the models employed using response surface methodology (RSM) for optimizing the physical properties of the orange beverage emulsion.