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Azalea

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S. K. Braman – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Using Aesthetic Assessments of Azalea Lace Bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) Feeding Injury to Provide Thresholds for Pest Management Decisions
    Journal of Economic Entomology, 2001
    Co-Authors: W. E. Klingeman, G. D. Buntin, S. K. Braman

    Abstract:

    Research on consumer, grower, and landscape manager perception of Azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding and on plant productivity parameters, including gas exchange and growth, has increased our understanding of the nature of feeding injury. These studies made it possible to develop decision-making guidelines for cost-effective maintenance of aesthetically pleasing Azaleas. Criteria were considered for three management situations: a 0.41-ha (1-acre) nursery production system that may use either insecticidal soap, acephate, or imidacloprid to control lace bugs; a landscape planting of a group of 10 Azaleas; or maintenance of a single Azalea in the landscape. Lace bug thresholds were calculated using a hybrid economic injury level (EIL) formula. Pesticide application decisions were determined using survey-based data from grower, landscape manager, and consumer perceptions of unacceptably injured Azaleas at point-of-purchase for the nursery situation. Additional landscape scenarios incorporated the perceptions of growers, landscape managers, and consumers for those levels of lace bug feeding-injury that prompted the desire for treatment. Hybrid EIL determinations are appropriate for lace bug management in landscape systems where landscape professionals manage large plantings of Azaleas and as a component of pest management among nursery production systems. Aesthetic considerations are more appropriate in determining control thresholds among a few or individual Azaleas in the landscape.

  • Azalea growth in response to Azalea lace bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) feeding.
    Journal of Economic Entomology, 2001
    Co-Authors: W. E. Klingeman, S. K. Braman, G. D. Buntin

    Abstract:

    The effects of Azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding injury on Azalea growth and development were investigated using ‘Girard’s Rose’ Azaleas during a 2-yr field study in Georgia. Low, medium, and high injury treatments, which corresponded to 6, 8, and 14% maximum canopy area injury, were compared with control Azaleas that received no lace bug infestation. Flower number, whole-shrub leaf and stem dry mass, and dry mass and size of new growth tissues were unaffected by treatments. In contrast, growth index measurements, a general measure of variability frequently used for horticultural differentiation, showed significant reductions for all treatments in comparison to control Azaleas after 20 wk. Though not directly quantified, this apparent discrepancy may be explained as an artifact of lace bug feeding-induced leaf abscission. Growth index measurements had considerable variability and may not be the most reliable measurement of size. In July 1998, plant canopy densities among Azaleas maintained in the high injury treatments were ≈15% less full than the canopies of control shrubs. Predaceous insects had a significant negative association with Azalea lace bug number during the 2-yr study. Flower and new tissue production, measured destructively during two growing seasons, revealed Azalea tolerance to 14% of maximum canopy area lace bug feeding-injury levels.

  • Feeding injury of the Azalea lace bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae).
    Journal of Entomological Science, 2000
    Co-Authors: W. E. Klingeman, S. K. Braman, G. D. Buntin

    Abstract:

    Azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding rates were investigated in controlled laboratory bioassays. Individual newly-eclosed nymphs were transferred to cut stems of ‘Girard’s Rose’ Azaleas and maintained at either 20°C for 26°C for the duration of their lifetimes. Feeding rates, determined using computer assisted image area analysis, were calculated for both nymphs and adults. In both trials, females caused significantly more feeding injury per day than males. However, the overall amount of injury inflicted during lace bug lifetimes was similar for males and females at both temperatures. During adulthood, feeding injury by individual lace bugs resulted in a mean (±SD) of 6.35 ± 4.61 cm2 leaf area injury at 20°C and 3.93 ± 2.06 cm2 leaf area injury at 26°C. Nymphal feeding was a small fraction of the injury inflicted by the adults and averaged 0.43 ±0.15 cm2 at 20°C and 0.30 ±0.10 cm2 at 26°C. The determination of Azalea lace bug feeding-injury potential is critical to the development of de…

Nobuo Kobayashi – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Genetic Relationship of Rhododendron ripense Makino to Japanese Evergreen Azalea Cultivars Evaluated by SSR Markers
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Nobuo Kobayashi, Kyoko Sugai, Tomoyuki Tsuji, Akira Nakatsuka

    Abstract:

    Evergreen Azalea cultivars as the important ornamental shrubs and pot plants have been developed based on the genetic resources of Japanese wild Azaleas. Rhododendron ripense Makino is one of the representative wild Azalea species endemic to West Japan and the ancestral parent of evergreen Azalea cultivars. In this study, we focused on this large flowered riverside Azalea and the genetic contribution to Azalea cultivars was evaluated by means of SSR markers. The results of PCoA using SSR data made plot distributions, which would reflect the taxon and genetic relationship between cultivar groups and their ancestral species. All individuals of R. ripense which classified in subsection Scabra makes distribution group apart from R. kaempferi and R. kiusianum group which classified in subsection Tsutsusi. The cultivars of R. ripense, Ryukyu Azalea (R. × mucronatum) and ‘Oomurasaki’ (R. × pulchrum) are all included in this R. ripense plot group. These results of this study suggested the important genetic contribution of R. ripense to the development of these Azalea cultivars.

  • Root Characteristics of Cuttings Grown from Evergreen Azaleas
    Horticultural Research (japan), 2020
    Co-Authors: Nobuo Kobayashi, Akira Nakatsuka, Madoka Miyazaki, Fumihiko Adachi

    Abstract:

    Varietal differences in root development were evaluated using cuttings of three species and four cultivars of evergreen Azaleas. More than 80% of cuttings were rooted in a shaded rain shelter, a closed–frame and a mist propagation system. Total root lengths of Rhododendron ripense and R. × pulchrum ‘Oomurasaki’ were long, while those of R. indicum ‘Osakaduki’ and Kurume Azalea ‘Kirin’ tended to be short. Leaf number and leaf area of each Azalea were increased in cuttings of shaded rain shelter and closed–frame system, compared to mist propagation system except for the leaf area of R. macrosepalum. R. macrosepalum, R. indicum ‘Osakaduki’ and R. × mucronatum ‘Shiro-ryukyu’ showed a wide rooting areas in the cuttings, having many and a wide range of extended roots out of cylindrical net in the nursery bed. R. kaempferi and Kurume Azalea ‘Kirin’ showed a narrow rooting area, having a small number of roots extending out of the net. These varietal differences of root characteristics in rooted cuttings showed the same tendency as field-planted plants in a previous study and would be related to genetic traits originating from adaptation to the natural habitat environment by each original species and the varieties derived from them. Root characteristics of cuttings from evergreen Azalea can be indicator of the root traits of field plants and would be useful information for application to the breeding of evergreen Azalea.

  • Long-lasting Corolla Cultivars in Japanese Azaleas: A Mutant AP3/DEF Homolog Identified in Traditional Azalea Cultivars from More Than 300 Years Ago.
    Frontiers in Plant Science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Kyeong-seong Cheon, Akira Nakatsuka, Keisuke Tasaki, Nobuo Kobayashi

    Abstract:

    Floral shape in higher plants typically requires genetic regulation through MADS transcription factors. In Japan, hundreds of Azalea cultivars including flower shape mutations have been selected from the diversity of endogenous species and natural hybrids since the early 17th century, the Edo era (1603 to 1867). The long-lasting trait, known as “Misome-shō” in Japanese, has been identified in several species and cultivar groups of evergreen Azaleas (Rhododendron L.) from three hundred years ago in Japan. However, the natural mutation conferring the long-lasting trait in Azalea remains unknown. Here, we showed MADS-box gene mutations in long-lasting flowers, R. kaempferi ‘Nikkō-misome’, R. macrosepalum ‘Kochō-zoroi’, R. indicum ‘Chōjyu-hō’, and R. × hannoense ‘Amagi-beni-chōjyu’. All of the long-lasting flowers exhibited small-sized corollas with stomata during long blooming. In the long-lasting flowers, transcript of the APETALA3 (AP3)/DEFICIENS (DEF) homologue was reduced, and an LTR-retrotransposon was independently inserted into exons 1, 2, and 7 or an unknown sequence in exon 1 in gDNA of each cultivar. This insertion apparently abolished the normal mRNA sequence of the AP3/DEF homologue in long-lasting flowers. Also, long-lasting flowers were shown from F2 hybrids that had homozygous ap3/def alleles. Therefore, we concluded that the loss of function of the AP3/DEF homologue through a transposable element insertion may confer a stable long-lasting mutation in evergreen Azaleas.

G. D. Buntin – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Using Aesthetic Assessments of Azalea Lace Bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) Feeding Injury to Provide Thresholds for Pest Management Decisions
    Journal of Economic Entomology, 2001
    Co-Authors: W. E. Klingeman, G. D. Buntin, S. K. Braman

    Abstract:

    Research on consumer, grower, and landscape manager perception of Azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding and on plant productivity parameters, including gas exchange and growth, has increased our understanding of the nature of feeding injury. These studies made it possible to develop decision-making guidelines for cost-effective maintenance of aesthetically pleasing Azaleas. Criteria were considered for three management situations: a 0.41-ha (1-acre) nursery production system that may use either insecticidal soap, acephate, or imidacloprid to control lace bugs; a landscape planting of a group of 10 Azaleas; or maintenance of a single Azalea in the landscape. Lace bug thresholds were calculated using a hybrid economic injury level (EIL) formula. Pesticide application decisions were determined using survey-based data from grower, landscape manager, and consumer perceptions of unacceptably injured Azaleas at point-of-purchase for the nursery situation. Additional landscape scenarios incorporated the perceptions of growers, landscape managers, and consumers for those levels of lace bug feeding-injury that prompted the desire for treatment. Hybrid EIL determinations are appropriate for lace bug management in landscape systems where landscape professionals manage large plantings of Azaleas and as a component of pest management among nursery production systems. Aesthetic considerations are more appropriate in determining control thresholds among a few or individual Azaleas in the landscape.

  • Azalea growth in response to Azalea lace bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) feeding.
    Journal of Economic Entomology, 2001
    Co-Authors: W. E. Klingeman, S. K. Braman, G. D. Buntin

    Abstract:

    The effects of Azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding injury on Azalea growth and development were investigated using ‘Girard’s Rose’ Azaleas during a 2-yr field study in Georgia. Low, medium, and high injury treatments, which corresponded to 6, 8, and 14% maximum canopy area injury, were compared with control Azaleas that received no lace bug infestation. Flower number, whole-shrub leaf and stem dry mass, and dry mass and size of new growth tissues were unaffected by treatments. In contrast, growth index measurements, a general measure of variability frequently used for horticultural differentiation, showed significant reductions for all treatments in comparison to control Azaleas after 20 wk. Though not directly quantified, this apparent discrepancy may be explained as an artifact of lace bug feeding-induced leaf abscission. Growth index measurements had considerable variability and may not be the most reliable measurement of size. In July 1998, plant canopy densities among Azaleas maintained in the high injury treatments were ≈15% less full than the canopies of control shrubs. Predaceous insects had a significant negative association with Azalea lace bug number during the 2-yr study. Flower and new tissue production, measured destructively during two growing seasons, revealed Azalea tolerance to 14% of maximum canopy area lace bug feeding-injury levels.

  • Feeding injury of the Azalea lace bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae).
    Journal of Entomological Science, 2000
    Co-Authors: W. E. Klingeman, S. K. Braman, G. D. Buntin

    Abstract:

    Azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding rates were investigated in controlled laboratory bioassays. Individual newly-eclosed nymphs were transferred to cut stems of ‘Girard’s Rose’ Azaleas and maintained at either 20°C for 26°C for the duration of their lifetimes. Feeding rates, determined using computer assisted image area analysis, were calculated for both nymphs and adults. In both trials, females caused significantly more feeding injury per day than males. However, the overall amount of injury inflicted during lace bug lifetimes was similar for males and females at both temperatures. During adulthood, feeding injury by individual lace bugs resulted in a mean (±SD) of 6.35 ± 4.61 cm2 leaf area injury at 20°C and 3.93 ± 2.06 cm2 leaf area injury at 26°C. Nymphal feeding was a small fraction of the injury inflicted by the adults and averaged 0.43 ±0.15 cm2 at 20°C and 0.30 ±0.10 cm2 at 26°C. The determination of Azalea lace bug feeding-injury potential is critical to the development of de…