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Baltic Sea

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Maija Sirola – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Scientific Support by the BONUS+ Projects for the Sustainability of the Baltic Sea Region: The Case of the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan
    AMBIO, 2014
    Co-Authors: Kaisa Kononen, Andris Andrusaitis, Maija Sirola

    Abstract:

    The synthesis of the BONUS+ reSearch is introduced. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan is examined as a case to illustrate the potentials and challenges in building the science–policymaking interface on a macroregional level. The projects address environmental challenges in the Baltic Sea as defined by the Baltic Sea Action Plan, or consider the environmental governance and decision making within the Baltic Sea context in general. Eutrophication, biodiversity, hazardous substances, maritime activities, and the environment governance are addressed, as are crosscutting issues, such as the impact of climate change, maritime spatial planning and impacts of future development on ecosystem services. The projects contributed to relevant policy developments: 37 consultations carried out at EU level, 49 modifications to policy documents and action plans, 153 suggestions for the efficacy of pertinent public policies and governance, and in 570 occasions, scientists working in BONUS+ projects served as members or observers in scientific and stakeholder committees.

Andreas Lehmann – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • CAVIAR: Climate variability of the Baltic Sea area and the response of the general circulation of the Baltic Sea to climate variability
    , 2010
    Co-Authors: Andreas Lehmann, Hans-harald Hinrichsen, Klaus Getzlaff, Friedrich W. Köster

    Abstract:

    The warming trend for the entire globe (1850-2005) is 0.04°C per decade. A specific warming period started around 1980 and continues at least until 2005, with a temperature increase of about 0.17°C per decade. This trend is equally well evident for many areas on the globe, especially on the northern hemisphere in observations and climate simulations. For the Baltic Sea catchment, which lies between maritime temperate and continental sub-Arctic climate zones, an even stronger warming of about 0.4°C per decade appeared since 1980. The annual mean air temperature increased by about 1°C until 2004. A similar warming trend could be observed for the Sea surface temperature of the Baltic Sea. Even the annual mean water temperatures averaged spatially and vertically for the deep basins of the
    Baltic Sea show similar trends. We provide a detailed analysis of the climate variability and associated
    changes in the Baltic Sea catchment area as well as in the Baltic Sea itself for the period 1958-2009, in which the recent acceleration of the climate warming happened. Changes in the atmospheric conditions causes corresponding changes in the Baltic Sea, not only for temperature and salinity but also for currents and circulation. These changes in the physical conditions have strong impact on the
    marine ecosystem structure and processes.

  • Upwelling in the Baltic Sea — A review
    Journal of Marine Systems, 2008
    Co-Authors: Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg

    Abstract:

    Upwelling is a typical phenomenon of the Baltic Sea. Because the Baltic Sea is a semi- enclosed basin, winds from favorable directions blowing predominately parallel to the coast cause upwelling leading to vertical displacement of the water body and mixing. During the thermal stratified period, upwelling can lead to a strong Sea-surface temperature drop of more than 10 °C changing drastically the thermal balance and stability conditions at the Sea-surface. Upwelling can play a key role in replenishing the euphotic zone with the nutritional components necessary for biological productivity when the surface layer is depleted of nutrients. Consequently, it has been found out that in such areas where upwelling lifts phosphorus-rich deep water to the surface, the N/P ratio becomes low which favors the blooming of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae. The rapid temperature decrease during such events was recognized and documented a long time ago when temperature measurements became available. Thus, the study of the upwelling process has a long tradition. However, although the importance of upwelling has generally been accepted for the Baltic Sea, no general review of upwelling exists. The objective of this paper is a comprehensive review of the upwelling process, its dynamics and reflections to ecosystem processes in the Baltic Sea using all relevant literature which will help to close the gaps of present knowledge and some recommendations for future work are outlined accordingly.

  • upwelling in the Baltic Sea a review
    Journal of Marine Systems, 2008
    Co-Authors: Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg

    Abstract:

    Upwelling is a typical phenomenon of the Baltic Sea. Because the Baltic Sea is a semi- enclosed basin, winds from favorable directions blowing predominately parallel to the coast cause upwelling leading to vertical displacement of the water body and mixing. During the thermal stratified period, upwelling can lead to a strong Sea-surface temperature drop of more than 10 °C changing drastically the thermal balance and stability conditions at the Sea-surface. Upwelling can play a key role in replenishing the euphotic zone with the nutritional components necessary for biological productivity when the surface layer is depleted of nutrients. Consequently, it has been found out that in such areas where upwelling lifts phosphorus-rich deep water to the surface, the N/P ratio becomes low which favors the blooming of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae. The rapid temperature decrease during such events was recognized and documented a long time ago when temperature measurements became available. Thus, the study of the upwelling process has a long tradition. However, although the importance of upwelling has generally been accepted for the Baltic Sea, no general review of upwelling exists. The objective of this paper is a comprehensive review of the upwelling process, its dynamics and reflections to ecosystem processes in the Baltic Sea using all relevant literature which will help to close the gaps of present knowledge and some recommendations for future work are outlined accordingly.

Kai Myrberg – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Upwelling in the Baltic Sea — A review
    Journal of Marine Systems, 2008
    Co-Authors: Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg

    Abstract:

    Upwelling is a typical phenomenon of the Baltic Sea. Because the Baltic Sea is a semi- enclosed basin, winds from favorable directions blowing predominately parallel to the coast cause upwelling leading to vertical displacement of the water body and mixing. During the thermal stratified period, upwelling can lead to a strong Sea-surface temperature drop of more than 10 °C changing drastically the thermal balance and stability conditions at the Sea-surface. Upwelling can play a key role in replenishing the euphotic zone with the nutritional components necessary for biological productivity when the surface layer is depleted of nutrients. Consequently, it has been found out that in such areas where upwelling lifts phosphorus-rich deep water to the surface, the N/P ratio becomes low which favors the blooming of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae. The rapid temperature decrease during such events was recognized and documented a long time ago when temperature measurements became available. Thus, the study of the upwelling process has a long tradition. However, although the importance of upwelling has generally been accepted for the Baltic Sea, no general review of upwelling exists. The objective of this paper is a comprehensive review of the upwelling process, its dynamics and reflections to ecosystem processes in the Baltic Sea using all relevant literature which will help to close the gaps of present knowledge and some recommendations for future work are outlined accordingly.

  • upwelling in the Baltic Sea a review
    Journal of Marine Systems, 2008
    Co-Authors: Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg

    Abstract:

    Upwelling is a typical phenomenon of the Baltic Sea. Because the Baltic Sea is a semi- enclosed basin, winds from favorable directions blowing predominately parallel to the coast cause upwelling leading to vertical displacement of the water body and mixing. During the thermal stratified period, upwelling can lead to a strong Sea-surface temperature drop of more than 10 °C changing drastically the thermal balance and stability conditions at the Sea-surface. Upwelling can play a key role in replenishing the euphotic zone with the nutritional components necessary for biological productivity when the surface layer is depleted of nutrients. Consequently, it has been found out that in such areas where upwelling lifts phosphorus-rich deep water to the surface, the N/P ratio becomes low which favors the blooming of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae. The rapid temperature decrease during such events was recognized and documented a long time ago when temperature measurements became available. Thus, the study of the upwelling process has a long tradition. However, although the importance of upwelling has generally been accepted for the Baltic Sea, no general review of upwelling exists. The objective of this paper is a comprehensive review of the upwelling process, its dynamics and reflections to ecosystem processes in the Baltic Sea using all relevant literature which will help to close the gaps of present knowledge and some recommendations for future work are outlined accordingly.