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Bank Protection

The Experts below are selected from a list of 291 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Arnd Weber – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Habitat rehabilitation in urban waterways: the ecological potential of Bank Protection structures for benthic invertebrates
    Urban Ecosystems, 2017
    Co-Authors: Arnd Weber, Xavier-françois Garcia, Christian Wolter

    Abstract:

    Compensating for the adverse ecological impacts of waterway development and improving their ecological functioning to achieve good ecological potential (GEP) have become mandatory within the European Union (EU). The technical rehabilitation measures presented here aim to functionally minimize the hydraulic impacts of navigation on aquatic biota in highly urbanized waterways. Their ecological functioning and potential to enhance biodiversity locally was assessed by comparing their macro-invertebrate community composition with nearby non-restored sites. Rehabilitation led to lower hydraulic impact on the littoral zone, which in turn led to the presence of otherwise missing macrophytes and the occurrence of organic mud habitats colonized by invertebrates typically rare in urban waterways. While the control sites were dominated by few, mostly invasive taxa in vast numbers, the rehabilitated sites exhibited a highly diverse community with 22 protected mollusc and insect taxa typically found in the oxbow communities of natural rivers. This major improvement was however not detected using the core metrics of the legally required national assessment tools of the EU Water Framework Directive. Overall results proved the success of this type of rehabilitation measure with respect to improving biodiversity, but they also showed the limiting and key factors influencing the macro-invertebrate communities of highly deteriorated urban waterways. Indeed, future implementations of this type of rehabilitation measure should consider spatial extent, water exchange rates, temporal succession of vegetation and adaptive management to improve its ecological functioning.

  • modelling the influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydrodynamics of an alternative Bank Protection measure in a navigable waterway
    River Research and Applications, 2016
    Co-Authors: Arnd Weber, Jingxin Zhang, A Nardin, Alexander Sukhodolov, Christian Wolter

    Abstract:

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become an effective tool for assessing hydrodynamics in complex environments. This paper reports on a CFD study of navigation-induced flows in a shallow, wave-protected, littoral habitat of the urban Spree River. It was constructed as a rehabilitation structure for aquatic organisms and subject to abundant growth of aquatic and riparian vegetation. This study aims to quantify the hydrodynamics induced by vessel movements and its consequences for water exchange and lateral connectivity between the habitat and the main channel with three representative, natural densities of aquatic plants.

    The simulations revealed both high efficiency of the rehabilitation structure in reducing hydrodynamic forces in the littoral and a superimposed reduction of hydrodynamic forces, and increase of flushing time with increased plant cover. Higher vegetation density resulted in lower wave propagation and lower connectivity of the rehabilitation structure with the fairway. Thus, natural succession of aquatic vegetation in the shallow habitats leads to increasing isolation and finally to terrestrialization. Maintaining the functionality of the rehabilitation structure as habitat for other aquatic organisms requires either plant removal or preferably adaptive modification, e.g. by successively increasing the openings to the main channel and letting the plants take over the protective function of the technical facilities. The developed CFD model helps to find hydrodynamically optimized solutions and to support decision-making process for maintaining littoral refuges for plants and weak swimming organisms in navigable waterways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Christian Wolter – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Habitat rehabilitation in urban waterways: the ecological potential of Bank Protection structures for benthic invertebrates
    Urban Ecosystems, 2017
    Co-Authors: Arnd Weber, Xavier-françois Garcia, Christian Wolter

    Abstract:

    Compensating for the adverse ecological impacts of waterway development and improving their ecological functioning to achieve good ecological potential (GEP) have become mandatory within the European Union (EU). The technical rehabilitation measures presented here aim to functionally minimize the hydraulic impacts of navigation on aquatic biota in highly urbanized waterways. Their ecological functioning and potential to enhance biodiversity locally was assessed by comparing their macro-invertebrate community composition with nearby non-restored sites. Rehabilitation led to lower hydraulic impact on the littoral zone, which in turn led to the presence of otherwise missing macrophytes and the occurrence of organic mud habitats colonized by invertebrates typically rare in urban waterways. While the control sites were dominated by few, mostly invasive taxa in vast numbers, the rehabilitated sites exhibited a highly diverse community with 22 protected mollusc and insect taxa typically found in the oxbow communities of natural rivers. This major improvement was however not detected using the core metrics of the legally required national assessment tools of the EU Water Framework Directive. Overall results proved the success of this type of rehabilitation measure with respect to improving biodiversity, but they also showed the limiting and key factors influencing the macro-invertebrate communities of highly deteriorated urban waterways. Indeed, future implementations of this type of rehabilitation measure should consider spatial extent, water exchange rates, temporal succession of vegetation and adaptive management to improve its ecological functioning.

  • modelling the influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydrodynamics of an alternative Bank Protection measure in a navigable waterway
    River Research and Applications, 2016
    Co-Authors: Arnd Weber, Jingxin Zhang, A Nardin, Alexander Sukhodolov, Christian Wolter

    Abstract:

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become an effective tool for assessing hydrodynamics in complex environments. This paper reports on a CFD study of navigation-induced flows in a shallow, wave-protected, littoral habitat of the urban Spree River. It was constructed as a rehabilitation structure for aquatic organisms and subject to abundant growth of aquatic and riparian vegetation. This study aims to quantify the hydrodynamics induced by vessel movements and its consequences for water exchange and lateral connectivity between the habitat and the main channel with three representative, natural densities of aquatic plants.

    The simulations revealed both high efficiency of the rehabilitation structure in reducing hydrodynamic forces in the littoral and a superimposed reduction of hydrodynamic forces, and increase of flushing time with increased plant cover. Higher vegetation density resulted in lower wave propagation and lower connectivity of the rehabilitation structure with the fairway. Thus, natural succession of aquatic vegetation in the shallow habitats leads to increasing isolation and finally to terrestrialization. Maintaining the functionality of the rehabilitation structure as habitat for other aquatic organisms requires either plant removal or preferably adaptive modification, e.g. by successively increasing the openings to the main channel and letting the plants take over the protective function of the technical facilities. The developed CFD model helps to find hydrodynamically optimized solutions and to support decision-making process for maintaining littoral refuges for plants and weak swimming organisms in navigable waterways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A. Chaudhary – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Pull a few strings [complete Protection of multistring fuseless capacitor Banks]
    IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, 2003
    Co-Authors: A. Chaudhary, K. Fender, L. Fendrick, J. Mccall

    Abstract:

    This article describes a novel application of the impedance method to provide complete Bank Protection by measuring the impedance of each series string of the capacitor Bank.

  • Complete relay Protection of multi-string fuseless capacitor Banks
    Conference Record of the 2002 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference (Cat. No.02CH37352), 2002
    Co-Authors: L. Fendrick, K. Fender, J. Mccall, A. Chaudhary

    Abstract:

    The trend towards large fuseless shunt capacitor Banks being employed in power systems is due to the lower cost, compact design, higher reliability with less exposed live parts, and lower losses. This paper describes a novel application of the impedance method to provide complete Bank Protection by measuring the impedance of each series string of the capacitor Bank. The scheme can identify the string(s) with an alarm or trip condition, keep the Bank in service with pack failures in multiple strings, and only trip when the Bank is actually in an unacceptable operating condition. Because this scheme can account for the distributed failure of packs in strings, Bank availability can be increased.

  • A primer on capacitor Bank Protection
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2001
    Co-Authors: M. Bishop, A. Chaudhary

    Abstract:

    Capacitor Banks are applied in power systems to provide reactive power. The reactive power results in lower current in lines upstream of the Bank improving system voltage and power factor and reducing line losses. Capacitor Banks can be configured as filters for harmonic reduction. The Protection systems for capacitor Banks include fuses, surge arresters, and protective relays. This paper focuses on protective relaying philosophies of grounded and ungrounded Y-connected shunt capacitor Banks, which are commonly applied on industrial and utility power systems.