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Bark Beetle

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Rupert Seidl – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • How to manage windthrows in Central Europe to prevent Bark Beetle outbreaks
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Laura Dobor, Tomáš Hlásny, Werner Rammer, Soňa Zimová, Rupert Seidl

    Abstract:

    <p>Bark Beetle (Ips typographus) epidemics in Europe are typically triggered by excessive availability of freshly dead trees and trees with compromised defense, which often occur after windstorms or droughts. Subsequently, enlarged Beetle populations migrate to the surrounding forests, which were not affected by the primary disturbance. Removal of windfelled trees (salvage or sanitation logging) is therefore a frequent management response to prevent the build-up of Bark Beetle populations. Yet, the effectivity of the removal remains poorly understood, particularly when the outbreaks are amplified by faster Beetle development cycles and reduced tree defense under climate change conditions.</p><p>Moreover, diverse ownership, management objectives and limited resources often restrict salvaging operations, and the final effect on Bark Beetle populations is thus even less clear. To better understand the interplay between climate, management, Bark Beetle populations, and host trees, we use the process-based forest landscape and disturbance model iLand. We studied differences between the removal of windfelled trees applied evenly across the landscape, focused on the vicinity of roads (scenario of limited logging resources) and concentrated in a contiguous block (scenario of spatially diversified management objectives) on a 16 050 ha forest landscape in Central Europe. We found that the removal of >80% of all windfelled trees is required to substantially reduce Bark Beetle disturbances. Focusing on the vicinity of roads created a “fire break effect” on Bark Beetle spread, and was moderately efficient in reducing landscape-scale Bark Beetle disturbance. Block treatments substantially reduced outbreaks in treated areas. Leaving parts of the landscape untreated (e.g., conservation areas) had no significant amplifying effect on outbreaks in managed areas. Our research suggests that the management of interacting disturbances from wind and Bark Beetles requires much more complex considerations than are currently practiced.</p>

  • spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future Bark Beetle outbreaks
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rupert Seidl, Kenneth F. Raffa, Daniel C Donato, Monica G Turner

    Abstract:

    Climate change is altering the frequency and severity of forest disturbances such as wildfires and Bark Beetle outbreaks, thereby increasing the potential for sequential disturbances to interact. Interactions can amplify or dampen disturbances, yet the direction and magnitude of future disturbance interactions are difficult to anticipate because underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We tested how variability in postfire forest development affects future susceptibility to Bark Beetle outbreaks, focusing on mountain pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and Douglas-fir Beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) in forests regenerating from the large high-severity fires that affected Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming in 1988. We combined extensive field data on postfire tree regeneration with a well-tested simulation model to assess susceptibility to Bark Beetle outbreaks over 130 y of stand development. Despite originating from the same fire event, among-stand variation in forest structure was very high and remained considerable for over a century. Thus, simulated emergence of stands susceptible to Bark Beetles was not temporally synchronized but was protracted by several decades, compared with stand development from spatially homogeneous regeneration. Furthermore, because of fire-mediated variability in forest structure, the habitat connectivity required to support broad-scale outbreaks and amplifying cross-scale feedbacks did not develop until well into the second century after the initial burn. We conclude that variability in tree regeneration after disturbance can dampen and delay future disturbance by breaking spatiotemporal synchrony on the landscape. This highlights the importance of fostering landscape variability in the context of ecosystem management given changing disturbance regimes.

  • small Beetle large scale drivers how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the european spruce Bark Beetle
    Journal of Applied Ecology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rupert Seidl, Marco Heurich, Jörg Müller, Claus Bassler, Torsten Hothorn, Markus Kautz

    Abstract:

    1. Unprecedented Bark Beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. 2. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus (Col., Scol.), we analysed drivers across seven orders of magnitude in scale (from 103 to 1010 m2) over a 23-year period, focusing on the Bavarian Forest National Park. Time-discrete hazard modelling was used to account for local factors and temporal dependencies. Subsequently, beta regression was applied to determine the influence of regional and landscape factors, the latter characterized by means of graph theory. 3. We found that in addition to stand variables, large-scale drivers also strongly influenced Bark Beetle infestation risk. Outbreak waves were closely related to landscape-scale connectedness of both host and Beetle populations as well as to regional Bark Beetle infestation levels. Furthermore, regional summer drought was identified as an important trigger for infestation pulses. Large-scale synchrony and connectivity are thus key drivers of the recently observed Bark Beetle outbreak in the area. 4.Synthesis and applications. Our multiscale analysis provides evidence that the risk for biotic disturbances is highly dependent on drivers beyond the control of traditional stand-scale management. This finding highlights the importance of fostering the ability to cope with and recover from disturbance. It furthermore suggests that a stronger consideration of landscape and regional processes is needed to address changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management.

Jörg Müller – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Bark Beetle Population Dynamics in the Anthropocene: Challenges and Solutions
    Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2019
    Co-Authors: Peter H. W. Biedermann, Jörg Müller, Jean-claude Grégoire, Axel Gruppe, Jonas Hagge, Almuth Hammerbacher, Richard W. Hofstetter, Dineshkumar Kandasamy, Miroslav Kolarik, Martin Kostovčík

    Abstract:

    Tree-killing Bark Beetles are the most economically important insects in conifer forests worldwide. However, despite >200 years of research, the drivers of population eruptions and crashes are still not fully understood and the existing knowledge is thus insufficient to face the challenges posed by the Anthropocene. We critically analyze potential biotic and abiotic drivers of population dynamics of an exemplary species, the European spruce Bark Beetle (ESBB) (Ips typographus) and present a multivariate approach that integrates the many drivers governing this Bark Beetle system. We call for hypothesis-driven, large-scale collaborative research efforts to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of this and other Bark Beetle pests. Our approach can serve as a blueprint for tackling other eruptive forest insects.

  • functional response of lignicolous fungal guilds to Bark Beetle deforestation
    Ecological Indicators, 2016
    Co-Authors: Claus Bassler, Simon Thorn, Jörg Müller, Marc W Cadotte, Christoph Heibl, Johannes Bradtka, Hans Halbwachs

    Abstract:

    Abstract Conifer-dominated forests in the northern hemisphere are prone to large-scale natural disturbances, yet our understanding of their effects beyond changes in species diversity is limited. Bark Beetle disturbances provide dead wood for lignicolous fungal guilds and increase insolation but also desiccation. We investigated whether species richness of these guilds increases and functional diversity decreases after Bark Beetle disturbance, which would promote through habitat filtering the coexistence of species adapted to harsh conditions, i.e. light stress for lichens and substrate desiccation for wood-inhabiting fungi. We sampled epixylic and epiphytic lichens (primary producers) and wood-inhabiting fungi (mainly wood decomposers, some form ectomycorrhizas) in the Bohemian Forest (Long Term Ecological Research – LTER – Site Bavarian Forest National Park), an area in Central Europe most heavily affected by the Bark Beetle Ips typographus , on undisturbed plots and disturbed plots with spruce ( Picea abies ) dieback 8 years ago. We analysed species diversity, functional diversity (optimized by phylogeny), and functional compositions. Species richness of lichens but not that of wood-inhabiting fungi was higher on disturbed plots than on undisturbed plots. Community compositions of both guilds differed considerably on disturbed and undisturbed plots. On both types of plots, lichen communities were clustered according to functional diversity, which indicated habitat filtering, and fungal communities were overdispersed, which indicated competition. Disturbance increased the strength of these two patterns only slightly and was significant only for fungi. Single-trait analysis revealed changes in the functional composition; on disturbed plots, lichenous species with larger and more complex growth forms and fungi with large, perennial fruit bodies were favoured. Although the forest canopy changed tremendously because of the Bark Beetle disturbance, the most important driver of lichen and fungal diversity and mean trait assemblages seemed to be the enrichment of dead wood. The changes in insolation and moisture did not act as habitat filters for either guild. This indicated that the assembly patterns of lichen and fungal communities in coniferous forests are not affected by stand-replacing disturbances in contrast to the predictions for other disturbance regimes.

  • small Beetle large scale drivers how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the european spruce Bark Beetle
    Journal of Applied Ecology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rupert Seidl, Marco Heurich, Jörg Müller, Claus Bassler, Torsten Hothorn, Markus Kautz

    Abstract:

    1. Unprecedented Bark Beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. 2. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus (Col., Scol.), we analysed drivers across seven orders of magnitude in scale (from 103 to 1010 m2) over a 23-year period, focusing on the Bavarian Forest National Park. Time-discrete hazard modelling was used to account for local factors and temporal dependencies. Subsequently, beta regression was applied to determine the influence of regional and landscape factors, the latter characterized by means of graph theory. 3. We found that in addition to stand variables, large-scale drivers also strongly influenced Bark Beetle infestation risk. Outbreak waves were closely related to landscape-scale connectedness of both host and Beetle populations as well as to regional Bark Beetle infestation levels. Furthermore, regional summer drought was identified as an important trigger for infestation pulses. Large-scale synchrony and connectivity are thus key drivers of the recently observed Bark Beetle outbreak in the area. 4.Synthesis and applications. Our multiscale analysis provides evidence that the risk for biotic disturbances is highly dependent on drivers beyond the control of traditional stand-scale management. This finding highlights the importance of fostering the ability to cope with and recover from disturbance. It furthermore suggests that a stronger consideration of landscape and regional processes is needed to address changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management.

Lars Barring – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • spatio temporal impact of climate change on the activity and voltinism of the spruce Bark Beetle ips typographus
    Global Change Biology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Anna Maria Jönsson, Lars Barring, Gustaf Appelberg, Susanne Harding

    Abstract:

    The spruce Bark Beetle Ips typographus is one of the major insect pests of mature Norway spruce forests. In this study, a model describing the temperature-dependent thresholds for swarming activity and temperature requirement for development from egg to adult was driven by transient regional climate scenario data for Sweden, covering the period of 1961-2100 for three future climate change scenarios (SRES A2, A1B and B2). During the 20th century, the weather supported the production of one Bark Beetle generation per year, except in the north-western mountainous parts of Sweden where the climate conditions were too harsh. A warmer climate may sustain a viable population also in the mountainous part; however, the distributional range of I. typographus may be restricted by the migration speed of Norway spruce. Modelling suggests that an earlier timing of spring swarming and fulfilled development of the first generation will significantly increase the frequency of summer swarming. Model calculations suggest that the spruce Bark Beetle will be able to initiate a second generation in South Sweden during 50% of the years around the mid century. By the end of the century, when temperatures during the Bark Beetle activity period are projected to have increased by 2.4-3.8 degrees C, a second generation will be initiated in South Sweden in 63-81% of the years. The corresponding figures are 16-33% for Mid Sweden, and 1-6% for North Sweden. During the next decades, one to two generations per year are predicted in response to temperature, and the northern distribution limit for the second generation will vary. Our study addresses questions applicable to sustainable forest management, suggesting that adequate countermeasures require monitoring of regional differences in timing of swarming and development of I. typographus, and planning of control operations during summer periods with large populations of Bark Beetles.