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Benzethonium Chloride

The Experts below are selected from a list of 279 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Shanta M Modak – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • evaluation of an alcohol based surgical hand disinfectant containing a synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride for immediate and persistent activity against resident hand flora of volunteers and with a novel in vitro pig skin mo
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Milind S Shintre, Trupti Gaonkar, Shanta M Modak

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the immediate, persistent and sustained in vivo activity of an alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectant, consisting of a zinc gel and a preservative system containing a synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride (ZBF disinfectant), and to develop a pig skin model for in vitro evaluation of the immediate and persistent efficacy of alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants against resident hand flora. DESIGN. The in vivo immediate, persistent, and sustained activity of ZBF disinfectant was evaluated using human volunteers and the “glove-juice” method described in the US Food and Drug Administration’s Tentative Final Monograph (FDA-TFM) for Healthcare Antiseptic Products. A novel in vitro pig skin model was developed to compare the immediate and persistent activity of alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants against resident flora using Staphylococcus epidermidis as the test organism. Four alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants were evaluated using this model. RESULTS. The results for the ZBF disinfectant exceed the FDA-TFM criteria for immediate, persistent, and sustained activity required for surgical hand disinfectants. The reduction factors for the 4 hand disinfectants obtained using the pig skin model show good agreement with the log 10 reductions in concentrations of hand flora obtained using human volunteers to test for immediate and persistent activity. CONCLUSION. The ZBF disinfectant we evaluated met the FDA-TFM criteria for surgical hand disinfectants. The immediate and persistent efficacy of the surgical hand disinfectants evaluated with the novel pig skin model described in this study shows good agreement with the results obtained in vivo.

  • efficacy of an alcohol based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2006
    Co-Authors: Milind S Shintre, Trupti Gaonkar, Shanta M Modak

    Abstract:

    Abstract Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium Chloride and Benzethonium Chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with Benzethonium Chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log10 reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log10 reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log10 reduction in the microbial count within 15 s and more than 2.8 log10 reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30 s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20–35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These findings suggest that the use of the ZBF hand rub amongst health care workers may lower the risk of chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials without compromising the efficacy.

Milind S Shintre – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • evaluation of an alcohol based surgical hand disinfectant containing a synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride for immediate and persistent activity against resident hand flora of volunteers and with a novel in vitro pig skin mo
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Milind S Shintre, Trupti Gaonkar, Shanta M Modak

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the immediate, persistent and sustained in vivo activity of an alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectant, consisting of a zinc gel and a preservative system containing a synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride (ZBF disinfectant), and to develop a pig skin model for in vitro evaluation of the immediate and persistent efficacy of alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants against resident hand flora. DESIGN. The in vivo immediate, persistent, and sustained activity of ZBF disinfectant was evaluated using human volunteers and the “glove-juice” method described in the US Food and Drug Administration’s Tentative Final Monograph (FDA-TFM) for Healthcare Antiseptic Products. A novel in vitro pig skin model was developed to compare the immediate and persistent activity of alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants against resident flora using Staphylococcus epidermidis as the test organism. Four alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants were evaluated using this model. RESULTS. The results for the ZBF disinfectant exceed the FDA-TFM criteria for immediate, persistent, and sustained activity required for surgical hand disinfectants. The reduction factors for the 4 hand disinfectants obtained using the pig skin model show good agreement with the log 10 reductions in concentrations of hand flora obtained using human volunteers to test for immediate and persistent activity. CONCLUSION. The ZBF disinfectant we evaluated met the FDA-TFM criteria for surgical hand disinfectants. The immediate and persistent efficacy of the surgical hand disinfectants evaluated with the novel pig skin model described in this study shows good agreement with the results obtained in vivo.

  • efficacy of an alcohol based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2006
    Co-Authors: Milind S Shintre, Trupti Gaonkar, Shanta M Modak

    Abstract:

    Abstract Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium Chloride and Benzethonium Chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with Benzethonium Chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and Benzethonium Chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log10 reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log10 reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log10 reduction in the microbial count within 15 s and more than 2.8 log10 reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30 s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20–35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These findings suggest that the use of the ZBF hand rub amongst health care workers may lower the risk of chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials without compromising the efficacy.

Birgit Hakkarainen – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • validation of a quantitative nmr method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of Benzethonium Chloride in grapefruit seed extracts
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2008
    Co-Authors: Somer Bekiroglu, Birgit Hakkarainen, Olle Myrberg, Kristina Ostman, Marianne Ek, Torbjorn Arvidsson, Torgny Rundlof

    Abstract:

    Abstract A 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of Benzethonium Chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe™. The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600 MHz BB probe and CryoProbe™, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3 mg/ml (0.4%), respectively.