Benzoylecgonine - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Benzoylecgonine

The Experts below are selected from a list of 276 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Christine Moore – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • determination of cocaine Benzoylecgonine cocaethylene and norcocaine in human hair using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection
    Journal of Chromatography B, 2007
    Co-Authors: Christine Moore, Cynthia Coulter, Katherine Crompton

    Abstract:

    Abstract A quantitative analytical procedure for the determination of cocaine, Benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene and norcocaine in hair has been developed and validated. The hair samples were washed, incubated, and any drugs present were quantified using mixed mode solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection in positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode. For confirmation, two transitions were monitored and one ion ratio was determined, which was within 20% of that of the known calibration standards. The monitoring of the qualifying transition and requirement for its presence within a specific ratio to the primary ion limited the sensitivity of the assay, particularly for Benzoylecgonine, however, the additional confidence in the final result as well as forensic defensibility were considered to be of greater importance. Even with simultaneous monitoring, the concentrations proposed by the United States Federal guidelines for hair analysis were achieved. The limits of quantitation were 50 pg/mg; the limit of detection was 25 pg/mg. The intra-day precision of the assays at 100 pg/mg ( n  = 5) was 1.3%, 8.1%, 0.8% and 0.4%; inter-day precision 4.8%, 9.2%, 15.7% and 12.6% ( n  = 10) for cocaine, Benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and norcocaine, respectively. The methods were applied to both proficiency specimens and to samples obtained during research studies in the USA.

  • determination of cocaine and its major metabolite Benzoylecgonine in amniotic fluid umbilical cord blood umbilical cord tissue and neonatal urine a case study
    Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 1993
    Co-Authors: Christine Moore, S Brown, Adam Negrusz, Ian R Tebbett, W Meyer, L Jain

    Abstract:

    The determination of cocaine abuse among pregnant women has become a topical issue for both legal and emotional reasons. The analysis of urine from both mother and baby using immunoassay procedures is the most common method of determining the presence of cocaine and its metabolites. However, unless exposure to cocaine has occurred recently, false negatives are frequently obtained from the analysis of neonatal urine (1). More recently, meconium has been used to determine cocaine abuse. Because meconium is cumulative throughout the pregnancy after about 16 weeks, it has been suggested that it may be a more accurate sample for determining cocaine use than the more commonly used urine (2,3). Amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, and umbilical cord tissue have not been analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites even though they are present for the entire pregnancy. A study of the available maternal and fetal biological fluids following a premature delivery in order to determine cocaine abuse during pregnancy was carded out. The maternal urine tested positive for cocaine metabolite using immunoassay. Ease of sample collection, extraction, and determination were all considered to be important factors in sample analysis. Solid-phase extraction using XTrackT | high-flow sorbents (Worldwide Monitoring) allowed the easy extraction of amniotic fluid, homogenized umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood. The more common Clean Screen | sorbents were used for urinalysis. The extracts were subsequently analyzed and quantitated using HPLC with multiwavelength UV detection (4,5). Results are shown in Table I. Neonatal urine showed the highest concentration of Benzoylecgonine, which is probably indicative of recent Table I. Results of HPLC Analyses Benzoylecg0nine Cocaine Sample

Iria Gonzalezmarino – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • spatio temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring
    Addiction, 2020
    Co-Authors: Iria Gonzalezmarino, Jose Antonio Azlomba, Nikiforos A Alygizakis, Maria Jesus Andrescosta, Richard Ade, Leo Arro, Jean Daniel Erse, Lubertus Ijlsma, Igo Odik

    Abstract:

    Background and aims
    Wastewater‐based epidemiology is an additional indicator of drug use that is gaining reliability to complement the current established panel of indicators. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess spatial and temporal trends of population‐normalized mass loads of Benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in raw wastewater over 7 years (2011–17); (ii) address overall drug use by estimating the average number of combined doses consumed per day in each city; and (iii) compare these with existing prevalence and seizure data.

    Design
    Analysis of daily raw wastewater composite samples collected over 1 week per year from 2011 to 2017.

    Setting and Participants
    Catchment areas of 143 wastewater treatment plants in 120 cities in 37 countries.

    Measurements
    Parent substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA) and the metabolites of cocaine (Benzoylecgonine) and of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (11‐nor‐9‐carboxy‐Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol) were measured in wastewater using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Daily mass loads (mg/day) were normalized to catchment population (mg/1000 people/day) and converted to the number of combined doses consumed per day. Spatial differences were assessed world‐wide, and temporal trends were discerned at European level by comparing 2011–13 drug loads versus 2014–17 loads.

    Findings
    Benzoylecgonine was the stimulant metabolite detected at higher loads in southern and western Europe, and amphetamine, MDMA and methamphetamine in East and North–Central Europe. In other continents, methamphetamine showed the highest levels in the United States and Australia and Benzoylecgonine in South America. During the reporting period, Benzoylecgonine loads increased in general across Europe, amphetamine and methamphetamine levels fluctuated and MDMA underwent an intermittent upsurge.

    Conclusions
    The analysis of wastewater to quantify drug loads provides near real‐time drug use estimates that globally correspond to prevalence and seizure data.

L Jain – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • determination of cocaine and its major metabolite Benzoylecgonine in amniotic fluid umbilical cord blood umbilical cord tissue and neonatal urine a case study
    Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 1993
    Co-Authors: Christine Moore, S Brown, Adam Negrusz, Ian R Tebbett, W Meyer, L Jain

    Abstract:

    The determination of cocaine abuse among pregnant women has become a topical issue for both legal and emotional reasons. The analysis of urine from both mother and baby using immunoassay procedures is the most common method of determining the presence of cocaine and its metabolites. However, unless exposure to cocaine has occurred recently, false negatives are frequently obtained from the analysis of neonatal urine (1). More recently, meconium has been used to determine cocaine abuse. Because meconium is cumulative throughout the pregnancy after about 16 weeks, it has been suggested that it may be a more accurate sample for determining cocaine use than the more commonly used urine (2,3). Amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, and umbilical cord tissue have not been analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites even though they are present for the entire pregnancy. A study of the available maternal and fetal biological fluids following a premature delivery in order to determine cocaine abuse during pregnancy was carded out. The maternal urine tested positive for cocaine metabolite using immunoassay. Ease of sample collection, extraction, and determination were all considered to be important factors in sample analysis. Solid-phase extraction using XTrackT | high-flow sorbents (Worldwide Monitoring) allowed the easy extraction of amniotic fluid, homogenized umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood. The more common Clean Screen | sorbents were used for urinalysis. The extracts were subsequently analyzed and quantitated using HPLC with multiwavelength UV detection (4,5). Results are shown in Table I. Neonatal urine showed the highest concentration of Benzoylecgonine, which is probably indicative of recent Table I. Results of HPLC Analyses Benzoylecg0nine Cocaine Sample