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Bilophila wadsworthia

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Alasdair M Cook – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Taurine Reduction in Anaerobic Respiration of
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Heike Laue, Karin Denger, Alasdair M Cook

    Abstract:

    Organosulfonates are important natural and man-made compounds, but until recently (T. J. Lie, T. Pitta, E. R. Leadbetter, W. Godchaux III, and J. R. Leadbetter. Arch. Microbiol. 166:204‐210, 1996), they were not believed to be dissimilated under anoxic conditions. We also chose to test whether alkane- and arenesulfonates could serve as electron sinks in respiratory metabolism. We generated 60 anoxic enrichment cultures in mineral salts medium which included several potential electron donors and a single organic sulfonate as an electron sink, and we used material from anaerobic digestors in communal sewage works as inocula. None of the four aromatic sulfonates, the three unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, or the N-sulfonate tested gave positive enrichment cultures requiring both the electron donor and electron sink for growth. Nine cultures utilizing the natural products taurine, cysteate, or isethionate were considered positive for growth, and all formed sulfide. Two clearly different pure cultures were examined. Putative Desulfovibrio sp. strain RZACYSA, with lactate as the electron donor, utilized sulfate, aminomethanesulfonate, taurine, isethionate, and cysteate, converting the latter to ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Strain RZATAU was identified by 16S rDNA analysis as Bilophila wadsworthia. In the presence of, e.g., formate as the electron donor, it utilized, e.g., cysteate and isethionate and converted taurine quantitatively to cell material and products identified as ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfate, were utilized as electron sinks, as was nitrate, when lactate was provided as the electron donor and carbon source. A growth requirement for 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a menaquinone electron carrier, and the presence of cytochrome c supports the presence of an electron transport chain. Pyruvate-dependent disappearance of taurine from cell extracts, as well as formation of alanine and release of ammonia and acetate, was detected. We suspected that sulfite is an intermediate, and we detected desulfoviridin (sulfite reductase). We thus believe that sulfonate reduction is one aspect of a respiratory system transferring electrons from, e.g., formate to sulfite reductase via an electron transport system which presumably generates a proton gradient across the cell membrane.

  • identification of Bilophila wadsworthia by specific pcr which targets the taurine pyruvate aminotransferase gene
    Fems Microbiology Letters, 2006
    Co-Authors: Heike Laue, M C Claros, Ulrike Schumacher, Theo H M Smits, Ralf Hartemink, Alasdair M Cook

    Abstract:

    The bile-resistant, strictly anaerobic bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia is found in human faecal flora, in human infections and in environmental samples. A specific PCR primer set for the gene encoding the first metabolic enzyme in the degradative pathway for taurine in B. wadsworthia, taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase (tpa), was developed and tested. In addition, enrichment cultures were started from faecal samples of primates and felines and shown to contain B. wadsworthia. These were subcultured on agar media and then identified by PCR fingerprinting. PCR for tpa was successful in all positive enrichment cultures and showed no amplification signal in a variety of other bacterial species. Therefore, this PCR method could be a promising tool for rapid detection of B. wadsworthia in biological samples.

  • dissimilatory sulfite reductase desulfoviridin of the taurine degrading non sulfate reducing bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia rzatau contains a fused dsrb dsrd subunit
    Journal of Bacteriology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Heike Laue, Michael W Friedrich, Jurgen Ruff, Alasdair M Cook

    Abstract:

    A dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was purified from the anaerobic, taurine-degrading bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme is involved in energy conservation by reducing sulfite, which is formed during the degradation of taurine as an electron acceptor, to sulfide. According to its UV-visible absorption spectrum with maxima at 392, 410, 583, and 630 nm, the enzyme belongs to the desulfoviridin type of DSRs. The sulfite reductase was isolated as an a2b2gn (n > 2) multimer with a native size of 285 kDa as determined by gel filtration. We have sequenced the genes encoding the a and b subunits (dsrA and dsrB, respectively), which probably constitute one operon. dsrA and dsrB encode polypeptides of 49 (a) and 54 kDa (b) which show significant similarities to the homologous subunits of other DSRs. The dsrB gene product of B. wadsworthia is apparently a fusion protein of dsrB and dsrD. This indicates a possible functional role of DsrD in DSR function because of its presence as a fusion protein as an integral part of the DSR holoenzyme in B. wadsworthia. A phylogenetic analysis using the available Dsr sequences revealed that B. wadsworthia grouped with its closest 16S rDNA relative Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Essex 6. Bilophila wadsworthia is a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium (2) which belongs to the family Desulfovibrionaceae in the delta subdivision of the Proteobacteria, but does not

Sydney M Finegold – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • In vitro activities of faropenem against 579 strains of anaerobic bacteria.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2002
    Co-Authors: Hannah M Wexler, Denise Molitoris, Shahera St. John, Ann Vu, Erik K. Read, Sydney M Finegold

    Abstract:

    The activity of faropenem, a new oral penem, was tested against 579 strains of anaerobic bacteria by using the NCCLS-approved reference method. Drugs tested included amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, clindamycin, faropenem, imipenem, and metronidazole. Of the 176 strains of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates tested, two isolates had faropenem MICs of 64 μg/ml and imipenem MICs of >32 μg/ml. Faropenem had an MIC of 16 μg/ml for an additional isolate of B. fragilis; this strain was sensitive to imipenem (MIC of 1 μg/ml). Both faropenem and imipenem had MICs of ≤4 μg/ml for all isolates of Bacteroides capillosus (10 isolates), Bacteroides splanchnicus (13 isolates), Bacteroides ureolyticus (11 isolates), Bilophila wadsworthia (11 isolates), Porphyromonas species (42 isolates), Prevotella species (78 isolates), Campylobacter species (25 isolates), Sutterella wadsworthensis (11 isolates), Fusobacterium nucleatum (19 isolates), Fusobacterium mortiferum/varium (20 isolates), and other Fusobacterium species (9 isolates). Faropenem and imipenem had MICs of 16 to 32 μg/ml for two strains of Clostridium difficile; the MICs for all other strains of Clostridium tested (69 isolates) were ≤4 μg/ml. Faropenem had MICs of 8 and 16 μg/ml, respectively, for two strains of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (MICs of imipenem were 2 μg/ml). MICs were ≤4 μg/ml for all other strains of gram-positive anaerobic cocci (53 isolates) and non-spore-forming gram-positive rods (28 isolates). Other results were as expected and reported in previous studies. No metronidazole resistance was seen in gram-negative anaerobes other than S. wadsworthensis (18% resistant); 63% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods were resistant. Some degree of clindamycin resistance was seen in most of the groups tested.

  • In vitro activity of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against 502 strains of anaerobic bacteria
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2001
    Co-Authors: Hannah M Wexler, Eric Molitoris, Denise Molitoris, Sydney M Finegold

    Abstract:

    : In a previous study, we compared HMR 3004 with azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin against 502 anaerobic bacteria using NCCLS-approved procedures. This report extends this study by reporting the activity of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against these strains. Telithromycin inhibited 10% of Bacteroides fragilis, 50% of other B. fragilis group organisms and 93% of other Bacteroides spp. Telithromycin inhibited all Porphyromonas spp. and 98% of Prevotella spp. Activity against Bilophila wadsworthia (85-96%) was excellent. Telithromycin was not active against the Fusobacterium mortiferum/varium group. Telithromycin inhibited 100% of Clostridium perfringens, 46-56% of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium ramosum and approximately 90% of non-spore-forming Gram-positive bacilli.

  • characterization of Bilophila wadsworthia isolates using pcr fingerprinting
    Anaerobe, 1999
    Co-Authors: M C Claros, Sydney M Finegold, Hunt S Gerardo, Ulrike Schumacher, M Jacob, N Kleinkauf, Ellie J C Goldstein, Arne C Rodloff

    Abstract:

    Abstract Bilophila wadsworthia , an under-appreciated anaerobic organism, was originally described in 1989. Ninety-nine Bilophila wadsworthia isolates, recovered form environmental and clinical specimens in Germany and in Southern California, were examined in this study. Many isolates were recovered in mixed culture with facultative aerobic and other anaerobic bacteria. All isolates were identified by standard laboratory procedures, including gas–liquid chromatography (GLC). A PCR fingerprint assay was established to compare the profiles of clinical and environmental isolates to the type strain (ATCC 49260) and to an environmental (sewage) reference strain (DSM 11045, RZATAU) for intra-species differences. Two primers, one universal primer, M13 core, and one tDNA primer, T3B, were used individually to analyse the strains. Homogeneous PCR fingerprint profiles were found for the majority of strains using the M13 core primer; two PCR groups were determined with T3B, one matching the type strain and one matching the environmental reference strain (DSM 11045, RZATAU). Two urease negative strains, WAL 11470 (blood isolate from California) and TUB 754 (intra-abdominal isolate from Germany) formed unique PCR fingerprint profiles with each of these primers. These results were confirmed by PCR fingerprinting using the T3A primer. These latter results suggest a possible genetic diversity in B. wadsworthia .

Heike Laue – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Taurine Reduction in Anaerobic Respiration of
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Heike Laue, Karin Denger, Alasdair M Cook

    Abstract:

    Organosulfonates are important natural and man-made compounds, but until recently (T. J. Lie, T. Pitta, E. R. Leadbetter, W. Godchaux III, and J. R. Leadbetter. Arch. Microbiol. 166:204‐210, 1996), they were not believed to be dissimilated under anoxic conditions. We also chose to test whether alkane- and arenesulfonates could serve as electron sinks in respiratory metabolism. We generated 60 anoxic enrichment cultures in mineral salts medium which included several potential electron donors and a single organic sulfonate as an electron sink, and we used material from anaerobic digestors in communal sewage works as inocula. None of the four aromatic sulfonates, the three unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, or the N-sulfonate tested gave positive enrichment cultures requiring both the electron donor and electron sink for growth. Nine cultures utilizing the natural products taurine, cysteate, or isethionate were considered positive for growth, and all formed sulfide. Two clearly different pure cultures were examined. Putative Desulfovibrio sp. strain RZACYSA, with lactate as the electron donor, utilized sulfate, aminomethanesulfonate, taurine, isethionate, and cysteate, converting the latter to ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Strain RZATAU was identified by 16S rDNA analysis as Bilophila wadsworthia. In the presence of, e.g., formate as the electron donor, it utilized, e.g., cysteate and isethionate and converted taurine quantitatively to cell material and products identified as ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfate, were utilized as electron sinks, as was nitrate, when lactate was provided as the electron donor and carbon source. A growth requirement for 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a menaquinone electron carrier, and the presence of cytochrome c supports the presence of an electron transport chain. Pyruvate-dependent disappearance of taurine from cell extracts, as well as formation of alanine and release of ammonia and acetate, was detected. We suspected that sulfite is an intermediate, and we detected desulfoviridin (sulfite reductase). We thus believe that sulfonate reduction is one aspect of a respiratory system transferring electrons from, e.g., formate to sulfite reductase via an electron transport system which presumably generates a proton gradient across the cell membrane.

  • identification of Bilophila wadsworthia by specific pcr which targets the taurine pyruvate aminotransferase gene
    Fems Microbiology Letters, 2006
    Co-Authors: Heike Laue, M C Claros, Ulrike Schumacher, Theo H M Smits, Ralf Hartemink, Alasdair M Cook

    Abstract:

    The bile-resistant, strictly anaerobic bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia is found in human faecal flora, in human infections and in environmental samples. A specific PCR primer set for the gene encoding the first metabolic enzyme in the degradative pathway for taurine in B. wadsworthia, taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase (tpa), was developed and tested. In addition, enrichment cultures were started from faecal samples of primates and felines and shown to contain B. wadsworthia. These were subcultured on agar media and then identified by PCR fingerprinting. PCR for tpa was successful in all positive enrichment cultures and showed no amplification signal in a variety of other bacterial species. Therefore, this PCR method could be a promising tool for rapid detection of B. wadsworthia in biological samples.

  • dissimilatory sulfite reductase desulfoviridin of the taurine degrading non sulfate reducing bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia rzatau contains a fused dsrb dsrd subunit
    Journal of Bacteriology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Heike Laue, Michael W Friedrich, Jurgen Ruff, Alasdair M Cook

    Abstract:

    A dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was purified from the anaerobic, taurine-degrading bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme is involved in energy conservation by reducing sulfite, which is formed during the degradation of taurine as an electron acceptor, to sulfide. According to its UV-visible absorption spectrum with maxima at 392, 410, 583, and 630 nm, the enzyme belongs to the desulfoviridin type of DSRs. The sulfite reductase was isolated as an a2b2gn (n > 2) multimer with a native size of 285 kDa as determined by gel filtration. We have sequenced the genes encoding the a and b subunits (dsrA and dsrB, respectively), which probably constitute one operon. dsrA and dsrB encode polypeptides of 49 (a) and 54 kDa (b) which show significant similarities to the homologous subunits of other DSRs. The dsrB gene product of B. wadsworthia is apparently a fusion protein of dsrB and dsrD. This indicates a possible functional role of DsrD in DSR function because of its presence as a fusion protein as an integral part of the DSR holoenzyme in B. wadsworthia. A phylogenetic analysis using the available Dsr sequences revealed that B. wadsworthia grouped with its closest 16S rDNA relative Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Essex 6. Bilophila wadsworthia is a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium (2) which belongs to the family Desulfovibrionaceae in the delta subdivision of the Proteobacteria, but does not