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Biocides

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Karine Vallée-réhel – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Formulation and antifouling activity of marine paints: a study by a statistically based experiments plan
    Progress in Organic Coatings, 2002
    Co-Authors: Muriel Thouvenin, Jean Jacques Peron, Valerie Langlois, J Y Langlois, Philippe Guérin, Karine Vallée-réhel

    Abstract:

    To produce the new generation of protective marine paints with reduced amount of Biocides, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon of the antifouling activity. It would require to define all the mechanisms which are involved (diffusion of water and Biocides in the matrix, hydrolytic degradation of the matrix), the resulting properties (erosion, presence of Biocides), the influential factors (formulation, nature of the binder) and the links between factors and properties, which is totally unrealisable. In a first step, the antifouling activity is tackled by considering only three selected properties which are essential for the consumers: the toughness, the erosion and the release of Biocides. A statistically based experiments plan is established in order to progress systematically in the study of the properties of antifouling paints and to define the influential factors on antifouling activity. The obtained results enabled us to exhibit two discriminating factors: the nature of the binder and the biocide. The amount of released Biocides is largely inferior to the lethal doses for bacteria. These results lead to ask new questions about the antifouling activity and to produce efficient paints with restricted amounts of Biocides.

  • Formulation and antifouling activity of marine paints: A study by a statistically based experiments plan
    Progress in Organic Coatings, 2002
    Co-Authors: Muriel Thouvenin, Jean Jacques Peron, Valerie Langlois, Ph. Guérin, J Y Langlois, Karine Vallée-réhel

    Abstract:

    To produce the new generation of protective marine paints with reduced amount of Biocides, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon of the antifouling activity. It would require to define all the mechanisms which are involved (diffusion of water and Biocides in the matrix, hydrolytic degradation of the matrix), the resulting properties (erosion, presence of Biocides), the influential factors (formulation, nature of the binder) and the links between factors and properties, which is totally unrealisable. In a first step, the antifouling activity is tackled by considering only three selected properties which are essential for the consumers: the toughness, the erosion and the release of Biocides. A statistically based experiments plan is established in order to progress systematically in the study of the properties of antifouling paints and to define the influential factors on antifouling activity. The obtained results enabled us to exhibit two discriminating factors: the nature of the binder and the biocide. The amount of released Biocides is largely inferior to the lethal doses for bacteria. These results lead to ask new questions about the antifouling activity and to produce efficient paints with restricted amounts of Biocides. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Jean-yves Maillard – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Resistance of Bacteria to Biocides
    Microbiology spectrum, 2018
    Co-Authors: Jean-yves Maillard

    Abstract:

    Biocides and formulated Biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of Biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to Biocides have increased the past few years. One problem remains the definition of “resistance” and how to measure resistance to a biocide. This has yet to be addressed globally, although the measurement of resistance is becoming more pressing, with regulators both in Europe and in the United States demanding that manufacturers provide evidence that their biocidal products will not impact on bacterial resistance. Alongside in vitro evidence of potential antimicrobial cross-resistance following biocide exposure, our understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial resistance and, more recently, our understanding of the effect of Biocides to induce a mechanism(s) of resistance in bacteria has improved. This article aims to provide an understanding of the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria following a biocide exposure. The sections provide evidence of the occurrence of bacterial resistance and its mechanisms of action and debate how to measure bacterial resistance to Biocides. Examples pertinent to the veterinary field are used where appropriate.

  • bacterial resistance to Biocides in the healthcare environment should it be of genuine concern
    Journal of Hospital Infection, 2007
    Co-Authors: Jean-yves Maillard

    Abstract:

    Summary The emergence of bacterial resistance following exposure in healthcare facilities has been a recurrent topic of interest over the last 10 years. The overwhelming and increasing body of evidence from studies in vitro showed that bacteria have an immense capacity to respond to chemical stress brought upon by Biocides. Empirically two major types of mechanisms have been described: intrinsic and acquired. However, the increasing documented response from bacteria exposed to biocide in conditions close to those found in practice suggests that intrinsic resistance does not adequately describe bacterial survival mechanisms, and that other terms such as biofilm resistance and environmental resistance would be therefore more appropriate. In addition, such terms are more relevant when describing in-situ conditions. The lack of evidence of bacterial resistance in practice and the inability to correlate emerging bacterial resistance from in-vitro experiments with practical situations is a major drawback when attempting to ascertain whether emerging bacterial resistance in healthcare facilities is of genuine concern. Microbial resistance to high or in-use concentration of Biocides has been described in practice, although it remains uncommon. The efficacy of Biocides in eliminating bacterial contaminants within healthcare facilities has to be questioned with the widespread and increasing use of products containing low concentrations of biocide or possessing low bactericidal activity, as is the selection of less susceptible bacteria following such exposure.

  • bacterial target sites for biocide action
    Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Jean-yves Maillard

    Abstract:

    Although Biocides have been used for a century, the number of products containing Biocides has recently increased dramatically with public awareness of hygiene issues. The antimicrobial efficacy of Biocides is now well documented; however, there is still a lack of understanding of their antimicrobial mechanisms of action. There is a wide range of Biocides showing different levels of antimicrobial activity. It is generally accepted that, in contrast to chemotherapeutic agents, Biocides have multiple target sites within the microbial cell and the overall damage to these target sites results in the bactericidal effect. Information about the antimicrobial efficacy of a biocide (i.e. the eta-value) might give some useful indications about the overall mode of action of a biocide. Bacteriostatic effects, usually achieved by a lower concentration of a biocide, might correspond to a reversible activity on the cytoplasmic membrane and/or the impairment of enzymatic activity. The bacteriostatic mechanism(s) of action of a biocide is less documented and a primary (unique?) target site within the cell might be involved. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action of a biocide has become an important issue with the emergence of bacterial resistance to Biocides and the suggestion that biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria might be linked. There is still a lack of understanding of the mode of action of Biocides, especially when used at low concentrations (i.e. minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) or sublethal). Although this information might not be required for highly reactive Biocides (e.g. alkylating and oxidizing agents) and Biocides used at high concentrations, the use of Biocides as preservatives or in products at sublethal concentrations, in which a bacteriostatic rather than a bactericidal activity is achieved, is driving the need to better understand microbial target sites. Understanding the mechanisms of action of Biocides serves several purposes: (i) it will help to design antimicrobial formulations with an improved antimicrobial efficacy and (ii) it will ensure the prevention of the emergence of microbial resistance.

Muriel Thouvenin – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Formulation and antifouling activity of marine paints: a study by a statistically based experiments plan
    Progress in Organic Coatings, 2002
    Co-Authors: Muriel Thouvenin, Jean Jacques Peron, Valerie Langlois, J Y Langlois, Philippe Guérin, Karine Vallée-réhel

    Abstract:

    To produce the new generation of protective marine paints with reduced amount of Biocides, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon of the antifouling activity. It would require to define all the mechanisms which are involved (diffusion of water and Biocides in the matrix, hydrolytic degradation of the matrix), the resulting properties (erosion, presence of Biocides), the influential factors (formulation, nature of the binder) and the links between factors and properties, which is totally unrealisable. In a first step, the antifouling activity is tackled by considering only three selected properties which are essential for the consumers: the toughness, the erosion and the release of Biocides. A statistically based experiments plan is established in order to progress systematically in the study of the properties of antifouling paints and to define the influential factors on antifouling activity. The obtained results enabled us to exhibit two discriminating factors: the nature of the binder and the biocide. The amount of released Biocides is largely inferior to the lethal doses for bacteria. These results lead to ask new questions about the antifouling activity and to produce efficient paints with restricted amounts of Biocides.

  • Formulation and antifouling activity of marine paints: A study by a statistically based experiments plan
    Progress in Organic Coatings, 2002
    Co-Authors: Muriel Thouvenin, Jean Jacques Peron, Valerie Langlois, Ph. Guérin, J Y Langlois, Karine Vallée-réhel

    Abstract:

    To produce the new generation of protective marine paints with reduced amount of Biocides, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon of the antifouling activity. It would require to define all the mechanisms which are involved (diffusion of water and Biocides in the matrix, hydrolytic degradation of the matrix), the resulting properties (erosion, presence of Biocides), the influential factors (formulation, nature of the binder) and the links between factors and properties, which is totally unrealisable. In a first step, the antifouling activity is tackled by considering only three selected properties which are essential for the consumers: the toughness, the erosion and the release of Biocides. A statistically based experiments plan is established in order to progress systematically in the study of the properties of antifouling paints and to define the influential factors on antifouling activity. The obtained results enabled us to exhibit two discriminating factors: the nature of the binder and the biocide. The amount of released Biocides is largely inferior to the lethal doses for bacteria. These results lead to ask new questions about the antifouling activity and to produce efficient paints with restricted amounts of Biocides. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.