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Blue Water Footprint

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Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Water Footprint of Tunisia from an economic perspective
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Hatem Chouchane, Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra, Martinus S. Krol, Mesfin Mekonnen

    Abstract:

    This paper quantifies and analyses the Water Footprint of Tunisia at national and sub-national level, assessing green, Blue and grey Water Footprints for the period 1996–2005. It also assesses economic Water and land productivities related to crop production for irrigated and rain-fed agriculture, and Water scarcity. The Water Footprint of crop production gave the largest contribution (87%) to the total national Water Footprint. At national level, tomatoes and potatoes were the main crops with relatively high economic Water productivity, while olives and barley were the main crops with relatively low productivity. In terms of economic land productivity, oranges had the highest productivity and barley the lowest. South Tunisia had the lowest economic Water and land productivities. Economic land productivity was found to explain more of the current production patterns than economic Water productivity, which may imply opportunities for Water saving. The total Blue Water Footprint of crop production represented 31% of the total renewable Blue Water resources, which means that Tunisia as a whole experienced significant Water scarcity. The Blue Water Footprint on groundWater represented 62% of the total renewable groundWater resources, which means that the country faced severe Water scarcity related to groundWater.

  • Water Footprint assessment in North Eastern region of Romania: A case study for Iasi County, Romania
    Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra, Mesfin Mekonnen, C. Teodosiu

    Abstract:

    Many factors affect the Water consumption pattern such as growing world population, climate changes, industrial and agricultural practices, etc. The present study provides for the first time a year-to-year analysis of Water use for agricultural production, domestic Water supply and industrial production from a hydrological, economical and ecological perspective in the NE region of Romania. Such an assessment can provide information to facilitate an efficient allocation of Water resources to different economic and environmental demands. This assessment is also considering the general economic and social context of the Iasi county as an important area within north-east- ern region of Romania. In the Iasi county, the green component takes the largest share in the total Water Footprint of crops because of the irrigation underdeveloped infrastructure, which makes the agricultural sector vulnerable to dry periods and floods as well. A monthly comparison between the Blue Water Footprint and Blue Water availability shows that Water scarcity varies greatly within the year, but also between years.

  • The Water Footprint of Switzerland
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: A.e. Ercin, Mesfin Mekonnen, Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra

    Abstract:

    Usually, countries do not consider the external Water Footprint of national consumption, which is related to imported Water-intensive commodities, in their national Water policies. In order to support a broader sort of analysis and better inform decision-making, the traditional production perspective in national Water policy should be supplemented with a consumption perspective. Because many consumer goods are imported, a responsible and fair national Water policy should include an international dimension. This report focusses on Switzerland. The background of the study is the recognition that there is a relation between the import of Water-intensive goods to Switzerland and their impacts on Water systems elsewhere in the world. Many of the goods consumed in Switzerland are not produced domestically, but abroad. Some goods, most in particular agriculture-based products, require a lot of Water during production. These Water-intensive production processes are often accompanied by impacts on the Water systems at the various locations where the production processes take place. The impacts vary from reduced river Water flows, declined lake levels and groundWater tables and increased salt intrusion in coastal areas to pollution of freshWater bodies. The objective of this study is to carry out a Water Footprint assessment for Switzerland from a consumption perspective. The assessment focuses on the analysis of the external Water Footprint of Swiss consumption, to get a complete picture of how national consumption translates to Water use, not only in Switzerland, but also abroad, and to assess Swiss dependency on external Water resources and the sustainability of imports. The study quantifies and maps the external Water Footprint of Switzerland, differentiating between agricultural and industrial commodities, and shows how the Blue Water Footprint of Swiss consumption contributes to Blue Water scarcity in specific river basins and which products are responsible herein. The total Water Footprint of national consumption of Switzerland is an average 11 billion m3 per year for the period 1996-2005, which is 1528 m3 per year or approximately 4120 litre per day per Swiss citizen. About 68% of this total is ‘green’, 25% ‘grey’ and 7% ‘Blue’. Consumption of agricultural commodities makes up the bulk of Switzerland’s Water Footprint, accounting for 81% of the total. Industrial commodities account for 17%; the remaining 2% relates to domestic Water supply. Most of the Water Footprint of Swiss consumption (82%) lies outside Switzerland. About 34% of the Blue Water Footprint of Swiss consumption is in river basins that experience moderate to severe Water scarcity during at least one month in a year. The priority basins are located in France (Garonne, Loire, Escaut and Seine), Italy (Po), Central Asia (Aral Sea basin), the USA (Mississippi), India (Ganges, Krishna, Godavari, Tapti, Mahi, Cauvery and Penner), Pakistan (Indus), Spain (Guadalquivir, Guadiana, and Tejo), Middle East (Tigris and Euphrates), China (Huang He, Yongding He, Mekong, Huai He and Tarim), West Africa (Nile, Tana) and Cote d’Ivoire (Sassandra). Cotton, rice, sugar cane, grape, sorghum, maize, soybean, sunflower, citrus and coffee are identified as priority products, giving significant contributions to the Blue Water scarcity in the selected priority basins. Especially cotton, rice and sugar cane give an important contribution to the Blue Water Footprint in many of these basins.

Mesfin Mekonnen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The Water Footprint of Switzerland
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: A.e. Ercin, Mesfin Mekonnen, Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra

    Abstract:

    Usually, countries do not consider the external Water Footprint of national consumption, which is related to imported Water-intensive commodities, in their national Water policies. In order to support a broader sort of analysis and better inform decision-making, the traditional production perspective in national Water policy should be supplemented with a consumption perspective. Because many consumer goods are imported, a responsible and fair national Water policy should include an international dimension. This report focusses on Switzerland. The background of the study is the recognition that there is a relation between the import of Water-intensive goods to Switzerland and their impacts on Water systems elsewhere in the world. Many of the goods consumed in Switzerland are not produced domestically, but abroad. Some goods, most in particular agriculture-based products, require a lot of Water during production. These Water-intensive production processes are often accompanied by impacts on the Water systems at the various locations where the production processes take place. The impacts vary from reduced river Water flows, declined lake levels and groundWater tables and increased salt intrusion in coastal areas to pollution of freshWater bodies. The objective of this study is to carry out a Water Footprint assessment for Switzerland from a consumption perspective. The assessment focuses on the analysis of the external Water Footprint of Swiss consumption, to get a complete picture of how national consumption translates to Water use, not only in Switzerland, but also abroad, and to assess Swiss dependency on external Water resources and the sustainability of imports. The study quantifies and maps the external Water Footprint of Switzerland, differentiating between agricultural and industrial commodities, and shows how the Blue Water Footprint of Swiss consumption contributes to Blue Water scarcity in specific river basins and which products are responsible herein. The total Water Footprint of national consumption of Switzerland is an average 11 billion m3 per year for the period 1996-2005, which is 1528 m3 per year or approximately 4120 litre per day per Swiss citizen. About 68% of this total is ‘green’, 25% ‘grey’ and 7% ‘Blue’. Consumption of agricultural commodities makes up the bulk of Switzerland’s Water Footprint, accounting for 81% of the total. Industrial commodities account for 17%; the remaining 2% relates to domestic Water supply. Most of the Water Footprint of Swiss consumption (82%) lies outside Switzerland. About 34% of the Blue Water Footprint of Swiss consumption is in river basins that experience moderate to severe Water scarcity during at least one month in a year. The priority basins are located in France (Garonne, Loire, Escaut and Seine), Italy (Po), Central Asia (Aral Sea basin), the USA (Mississippi), India (Ganges, Krishna, Godavari, Tapti, Mahi, Cauvery and Penner), Pakistan (Indus), Spain (Guadalquivir, Guadiana, and Tejo), Middle East (Tigris and Euphrates), China (Huang He, Yongding He, Mekong, Huai He and Tarim), West Africa (Nile, Tana) and Cote d’Ivoire (Sassandra). Cotton, rice, sugar cane, grape, sorghum, maize, soybean, sunflower, citrus and coffee are identified as priority products, giving significant contributions to the Blue Water scarcity in the selected priority basins. Especially cotton, rice and sugar cane give an important contribution to the Blue Water Footprint in many of these basins.

  • Water Footprint of Tunisia from an economic perspective
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Hatem Chouchane, Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra, Martinus S. Krol, Mesfin Mekonnen

    Abstract:

    This paper quantifies and analyses the Water Footprint of Tunisia at national and sub-national level, assessing green, Blue and grey Water Footprints for the period 1996–2005. It also assesses economic Water and land productivities related to crop production for irrigated and rain-fed agriculture, and Water scarcity. The Water Footprint of crop production gave the largest contribution (87%) to the total national Water Footprint. At national level, tomatoes and potatoes were the main crops with relatively high economic Water productivity, while olives and barley were the main crops with relatively low productivity. In terms of economic land productivity, oranges had the highest productivity and barley the lowest. South Tunisia had the lowest economic Water and land productivities. Economic land productivity was found to explain more of the current production patterns than economic Water productivity, which may imply opportunities for Water saving. The total Blue Water Footprint of crop production represented 31% of the total renewable Blue Water resources, which means that Tunisia as a whole experienced significant Water scarcity. The Blue Water Footprint on groundWater represented 62% of the total renewable groundWater resources, which means that the country faced severe Water scarcity related to groundWater.

  • Water Footprint assessment in North Eastern region of Romania: A case study for Iasi County, Romania
    Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra, Mesfin Mekonnen, C. Teodosiu

    Abstract:

    Many factors affect the Water consumption pattern such as growing world population, climate changes, industrial and agricultural practices, etc. The present study provides for the first time a year-to-year analysis of Water use for agricultural production, domestic Water supply and industrial production from a hydrological, economical and ecological perspective in the NE region of Romania. Such an assessment can provide information to facilitate an efficient allocation of Water resources to different economic and environmental demands. This assessment is also considering the general economic and social context of the Iasi county as an important area within north-east- ern region of Romania. In the Iasi county, the green component takes the largest share in the total Water Footprint of crops because of the irrigation underdeveloped infrastructure, which makes the agricultural sector vulnerable to dry periods and floods as well. A monthly comparison between the Blue Water Footprint and Blue Water availability shows that Water scarcity varies greatly within the year, but also between years.

A. D. Chukalla – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • trade off between Blue and grey Water Footprint of crop production at different nitrogen application rates under various field management practices
    Science of The Total Environment, 2018
    Co-Authors: A. D. Chukalla, Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra, Martinus S. Krol

    Abstract:

    Abstract In irrigated crop production, nitrogen (N) is often applied at high rates in order to maximize crop yield. With such high rates, the Blue Water Footprint (WF) per unit of crop is low, but the N-related grey WF per unit of crop yield is relatively high. This study explores the trade-off between Blue and grey WF at different N-application rates (from 25 to 300 kg N ha−1 y−1) under various field management practices. We first analyse this trade-off under a reference management package (applying inorganic-N, conventional tillage, full irrigation). Next, we estimate the economically optimal N-application rate when putting a price to pollution. Finally, we consider the Blue-grey WF trade-off for other management packages, a combination of inorganic-N or organic-N with conventional tillage or no-tillage, and full or deficit irrigation. We use the APEX model to simulate soil Water and N balances and crop growth. As a case study, we consider irrigated maize on loam soil for the period 1998–2012 in a semi-arid environment in Spain. The results for the reference package show that increasing N application from 50 to 200 kg N ha−1, with crop yield growing by a factor 3, involves a trade-off, whereby the Blue WF per tonne declines by 60% but the N-related grey WF increases by 210%. Increasing N application from 25 to 50 kg N ha−1, with yield increasing by a factor 2, is a no-regret move, because Blue and grey WFs per tonne are reduced by 40% and 8%, respectively. Decreasing N application from 300 to 200 kg N ha−1 is a no-regret move as well. The minimum Blue WF per tonne is found at N application of 200 kg N ha−1, with a price of 8 $ kg−1 of N load to Water pollution the economically optimal N-application rate is 150 kg N ha−1.

  • green and Blue Water Footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture effect of irrigation techniques irrigation strategies and mulching
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2015
    Co-Authors: A. D. Chukalla, Martinus S. Krol, Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra

    Abstract:

    Consumptive Water Footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshWater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil Water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, Blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8–10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17–18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to Blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of “irrigation efficiency” for furrow is lower.

  • Green and Blue Water Footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: Effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2015
    Co-Authors: A. D. Chukalla, Martinus S. Krol, Arjen Ysbert Hoekstra

    Abstract:

    Consumptive Water Footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh Water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil Water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y). The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)); four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation); and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, Blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8–10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17–18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to Blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of “irrigation efficiency” for furrow is lower.