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Bone Size

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Claes Ohlsson – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Exercise During Growth and Young Adulthood Is Independently Associated With Cortical Bone Size and Strength in Old Swedish Men
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2014
    Co-Authors: Martin Nilsson, Magnus K Karlsson, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Daniel Sundh, Mattias Lorentzon

    Abstract:

    Previous studies have reported an association between exercise during youth and increased areal Bone mineral density at old age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if exercise during growth was independently associated with greater cortical Bone Size and whole Bone strength in weight-bearing Bone in old men. The tibia and radius were measured using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (XCT-2000; Stratec) at the diaphysis and high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) (XtremeCT; Scanco) at the metaphysis to obtain cortical Bone geometry and finite element-derived Bone strength in distal tibia and radius, in 597 men, 79.9 +/- 3.4 (mean +/- SD) years old. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about previous and current physical activity. In order to determine whether level of exercise during growth and young adulthood or level of current physical activity were independently associated with Bone parameters in both tibia and radius, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses were used. Adjusting for covariates and current physical activity, we found that men in the group with the highest level of exercise early in life (regular exercise at a competitive level) had higher tibial cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; 6.3%, p

  • The Role of GH/IGF-I-Mediated Mechanisms in Sex Differences in Cortical Bone Size in Mice
    Calcified Tissue International, 2011
    Co-Authors: Lisa E. Olson, Claes Ohlsson, Subburaman Mohan

    Abstract:

    Cortical Bone dimensions are important determinants of Bone strength. Gender differences in cortical Bone Size caused by greater periosteal expansion in males than in females during the pubertal growth spurt are well established both in humans and in experimental animal models. However, the mechanism by which gender influences cortical Bone Size is still a matter of investigation. The role of androgens and estrogen in pubertal Bone growth has been examined in human disorders as well as animal models, such as gonadectomized or sex steroid receptor knockout mice. Based on the findings that growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are major regulators of postnatal skeletal growth, we and others have predicted that sex hormones interact with the GH/IGF-I axis to regulate cortical Bone Size. However, studies conflict as to whether estrogen and androgens impact cortical Bone Size through the canonical pathway, through GH without IGF-I mediation, through IGF-I without GH stimulation, or independent of GH/IGF-I. We review recent data on the impact of sex steroids and components of the GH/IGF axis on sexual dimorphism in Bone Size. While the GH/IGF-I axis is a major player in regulating peak Bone Size, the relative contribution of GH/IGF-dependent mechanisms to sex differences in cortical Bone Size remains to be established.

  • previous sport activity during childhood and adolescence is associated with increased cortical Bone Size in young adult men
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2009
    Co-Authors: Martin Nilsson, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Mattias Lorentzon

    Abstract:

    Physical activity during growth has been associated with altered cortical Bone geometry, but it remains uncertain if the physical activity–induced increments in cortical Bone Size remain when the level of physical activity is diminished or ceased. The aim of this study was to investigate if physical activity during growth is associated with cortical Bone geometry in currently inactive young men. In this study, 1068 men (18.9 ± 0.6 [SD] yr) were included. Cortical Bone geometry at the tibia and radius were measured using pQCT. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about current and previous sport activity. Subjects who continued to be active (n = 678) and who had been previously active (n = 285) in sports had a wider cortical Bone (periosteal circumference [PC], 4.5% and 3.2%, respectively) with increased cross-sectional area (CSA; 12.5% and 6.9%) of the tibia than the always inactive subjects (n = 82). In the currently inactive men (n = 367), regression analysis (including covariates age, height, weight, calcium intake, smoking, and duration of inactivity) showed that previous sport activity was independently associated with cortical Bone Size of the tibia (CSA and PC). Amount of previous sport activity explained 7.3% of the total variation in cortical CSA. Subjects, who ceased their sport activity for up to 6.5 yr previously, still had greater cortical PC and CSA of the tibia than always inactive subjects. The results from this study indicate that sport activity during growth confers positive effects on Bone geometry even though sport activity is ceased.

Mattias Lorentzon – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Exercise During Growth and Young Adulthood Is Independently Associated With Cortical Bone Size and Strength in Old Swedish Men
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2014
    Co-Authors: Martin Nilsson, Magnus K Karlsson, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Daniel Sundh, Mattias Lorentzon

    Abstract:

    Previous studies have reported an association between exercise during youth and increased areal Bone mineral density at old age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if exercise during growth was independently associated with greater cortical Bone Size and whole Bone strength in weight-bearing Bone in old men. The tibia and radius were measured using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (XCT-2000; Stratec) at the diaphysis and high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) (XtremeCT; Scanco) at the metaphysis to obtain cortical Bone geometry and finite element-derived Bone strength in distal tibia and radius, in 597 men, 79.9 +/- 3.4 (mean +/- SD) years old. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about previous and current physical activity. In order to determine whether level of exercise during growth and young adulthood or level of current physical activity were independently associated with Bone parameters in both tibia and radius, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses were used. Adjusting for covariates and current physical activity, we found that men in the group with the highest level of exercise early in life (regular exercise at a competitive level) had higher tibial cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; 6.3%, p

  • previous sport activity during childhood and adolescence is associated with increased cortical Bone Size in young adult men
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2009
    Co-Authors: Martin Nilsson, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Mattias Lorentzon

    Abstract:

    Physical activity during growth has been associated with altered cortical Bone geometry, but it remains uncertain if the physical activity–induced increments in cortical Bone Size remain when the level of physical activity is diminished or ceased. The aim of this study was to investigate if physical activity during growth is associated with cortical Bone geometry in currently inactive young men. In this study, 1068 men (18.9 ± 0.6 [SD] yr) were included. Cortical Bone geometry at the tibia and radius were measured using pQCT. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about current and previous sport activity. Subjects who continued to be active (n = 678) and who had been previously active (n = 285) in sports had a wider cortical Bone (periosteal circumference [PC], 4.5% and 3.2%, respectively) with increased cross-sectional area (CSA; 12.5% and 6.9%) of the tibia than the always inactive subjects (n = 82). In the currently inactive men (n = 367), regression analysis (including covariates age, height, weight, calcium intake, smoking, and duration of inactivity) showed that previous sport activity was independently associated with cortical Bone Size of the tibia (CSA and PC). Amount of previous sport activity explained 7.3% of the total variation in cortical CSA. Subjects, who ceased their sport activity for up to 6.5 yr previously, still had greater cortical PC and CSA of the tibia than always inactive subjects. The results from this study indicate that sport activity during growth confers positive effects on Bone geometry even though sport activity is ceased.

  • Sex steroid levels and cortical Bone Size in young men are associated with a uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 2b7 polymorphism (H268Y)
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2007
    Co-Authors: Charlotte Swanson, Mattias Lorentzon, Liesbeth Vandenput, Fernand Labrie, Anders Rane, Jenny Jakobsson, Sarah Chouinard, Alain Bélanger, Claes Ohlsson

    Abstract:

    CONTEXT: Sex steroids are involved in the regulation of pubertal cortical Bone expansion in males. In vitro studies have indicated that the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 has the capacity to glucuronidate sex steroids and their metabolites. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the impact of the H(268)Y polymorphism in the UGT2B7 gene on interindividual variation of serum levels of sex steroids and cortical Bone dimensions. PARTICIPANTS: The population-based cohort Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants study consists of 1068 young adult Swedish men (age 18.9 yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of sex steroids and the three major glucuronidated androgen metabolites, androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-17glucuronide, androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-3glucuronide, and androsterone-glucuronide, were analyzed. Cortical and trabecular volumetric Bone mineral density and cortical Bone Size were measured by peripheral quantitative computer tomography. RESULTS: Serum levels of testosterone (YY 9% over HH; P < 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (YY 10% over HH; P < 0.01), and estradiol (YY 8% over HH; P < 0.01) were associated with the UGT2B7 H(268)Y polymorphism. The polymorphism was associated with androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-17glucuronide and androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-3glucuronide (P < 0.01), but not with androsterone-glucuronide serum levels. In addition, the UGT2B7 H(268)Y polymorphism was an independent predictor of cortical Bone Size, reflected by periosteal circumference and cortical moment of inertia (P < 0.01), in both the weight-bearing tibia and nonweight-bearing radius. CONCLUSIONS: The UGT2B7 H(268)Y polymorphism is independently associated with cortical Bone Size and serum sex steroid levels in young adult men. Subjects homozygous for the Y allele had higher serum testosterone and larger cortical Bone Size than subjects homozygous for the H allele. However, the underlying mechanism behind these associations is unknown and has to be studied further.

Ego Seeman – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • fracture site specific deficits in Bone Size and volumetric density in men with spine or hip fractures
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2001
    Co-Authors: Ego Seeman, Yunbo Duan, Christopher Fong, Jan Edmonds

    Abstract:

    To study the structural basis of Bone fragility in men, we compared Bone Size and volumetric Bone mineral density (vBMD) of the third lumbar vertebra and femoral neck in 95 men with spine fractures, 127 men with hip fractures, and 395 healthy controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The results were expressed in absolute terms and age-specific SD scores (mean ± SEM). In controls, vertebral body and femoral neck width increased across age, being 0.46 ± 0.11 SD and 0.91 ± 0.08 SD higher in elderly men than in young men, respectively (both, p < 0.001). Men with spine fractures had reduced vertebral body width (−0.45 ± 0.10 SD; p < 0.01) but not femoral neck width (−0.15 ± 0.10 SD, NS). Men with hip fractures had reduced femoral neck width (−0.45 ± 0.11 SD; p < 0.01) and vertebral body width (−0.25 ± 0.10 SD; p < 0.05). The deficits in Bone volume (BV) exaggerated the deficits in Bone mineral content (BMC) by 40% at the vertebrae in men with spine fractures and by 9% at the femoral neck in men with hip fractures. vBMD deficits were greater at the vertebrae in men with spine fractures than in men with hip fractures (−1.37 ± 0.08 SD vs.−0.70 ± 0.10 SD, respectively; p < 0.01) but were similar at the femoral neck (−0.93 ± 0.10 SD and −0.76 ± 0.11 SD, respectively, NS), despite the men with spine fracture being 10 years younger. Bone fragility leading to spine or hip fractures in men may be the result of fracture site-specific deficits in Bone Size and vBMD that have their origins in growth, aging, or both.

  • On exposure to anorexia nervosa, the temporal variation in axial and appendicular skeletal development predisposes to site-specific deficits in Bone Size and density: a cross-sectional study.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2000
    Co-Authors: Ego Seeman, Magnus K Karlsson, Yunbo Duan

    Abstract:

    Skeletal development is heterogeneous. Throughout growth, Bone Size is more maturationally advanced than the mineral being accrued within its periosteal envelope; before puberty, appendicular growth is more rapid than axial growth; during puberty, appendicular growth slows and axial growth accelerates. We studied women with differing age of onset of anorexia nervosa to determine whether this temporal heterogeneity in growth predisposed to the development of deficits in Bone Size and volumetric Bone mineral density (vBMD), which varied by site and severity depending on the age at which anorexia nervosa occurred. Bone Size and vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 210 women aged 21 years (range, 12–40 years) with anorexia nervosa. Results were expressed as age-specific SDs (mean ± SEM). Bone width depended on the age of onset of anorexia nervosa; when the onset of anorexia nervosa occurred (1) before 15 years of age, deficits in vertebral body and femoral neck width did not differ (−0.77 ± 0.27 SD and −0.55 ± 0.17 SD, respectively); (2) between 15 and 19 years of age, deficits in vertebral body width (−0.95 ± 0.16 SD) were three times the deficits in femoral neck width (−0.28 ± 0.14 SD; p < 0.05 comparing the deficits), (3) after 19 years of age, deficits in the vertebral body width (−0.49 ± 0.26 SD; p = 0.05) were half that in women with earlier onset of anorexia nervosa. No deficit in Bone width was observed at the femoral neck. Deficits in vBMD at the vertebra and femoral neck were independent of the age of onset of anorexia nervosa but increased as the duration of anorexia nervosa increased, being about 0.5 SD lower at the vertebra than femoral neck. We infer that the maturational development of a region at the time of exposure to disease, and disease duration, determine the site, magnitude, and type of trait deficit in anorexia nervosa. Bone fragility due to reduced Bone Size and reduced vBMD in adulthood is partly established during growth.

  • Bone Size and volumetric density in women with anorexia nervosa receiving estrogen replacement therapy and in women recovered from anorexia nervosa.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2000
    Co-Authors: Magnus K Karlsson, Susan J. Weigall, Yunbo Duan, Ego Seeman

    Abstract:

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with Bone loss during adulthood, but may also delay skeletal growth and mineral accrual during growth. We asked the following questions. 1) Is anorexia nervosa associated with reduced Bone Size and reduced volumetric Bone mineral density (vBMD)? 2) Is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) or recovery from anorexia nervosa associated with normal Bone Size and vBMD? Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured Bone Size and vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra and femoral neck in a cross-sectional study of 161 female patients: 77 with untreated anorexia nervosa, 58 with anorexia nervosa receiving ERT, 26 recovered from anorexia nervosa, and 205 healthy age-matched controls. Results were expressed as the sd or z-score (mean ± sem). Deficits in vertebral body and femoral neck width in untreated women were −1.0 ± 0.1 and −0.3 ± 0.1 sd (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Deficits in Bone width were less in the ERT-treated women than in untreated women at the vertebral body (−…