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Burrowing

The Experts below are selected from a list of 321 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Hopi E Hoekstra – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • behavioural mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperative Burrowing in peromyscus mice
    bioRxiv, 2019
    Co-Authors: Nicole L Bedford, Jesse N Weber, Wenfei Tong, Felix Baier, Rebecca A Greenberg, Hopi E Hoekstra

    Abstract:

    While some behaviours are largely fixed and invariant, others can respond flexibly to different social contexts. Here, we leverage the unique Burrowing behaviour of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) to investigate if and how individuals of three species adapt their behaviour when digging individually versus with partners. First, we find that pairs of mice from monogamous (P. polionotus) but not promiscuous (P. maniculatus, P. leucopus) species cooperatively construct burrows that are approximately twice as long as those dug by individuals and similar in size to burrows found in the wild. However, the length of burrows built by P. polionotus pairs differs: opposite-sex pairs construct longer burrows than same-sex pairs. By designing a novel behavioural assay in which we can observe and measure Burrowing behaviour directly, we find that longer burrows are achieved not by changing individual behaviour, but instead because opposite-sex pairs are more socially cohesive and thus more likely to dig simultaneously, which is a more efficient mode of burrow elongation. Thus, across social contexts, individual Burrowing behaviour appears largely invariant, even when the resultant burrow from pairs of mice differs from expectation based on individual behaviour, underscoring the fixed nature of Burrowing behaviour in Peromyscus mice.

  • evolution and genetics of precocious Burrowing behavior in peromyscus mice
    Current Biology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Hopi E Hoekstra, Hillery C Metz, Nicole L Bedford

    Abstract:

    Summary A central challenge in biology is to understand how innate behaviors evolve between closely related species. One way to elucidate how differences arise is to compare the development of behavior in species with distinct adult traits [1]. Here, we report that Peromyscus polionotus is strikingly precocious with regard to Burrowing behavior, but not other behaviors, compared to its sister species P. maniculatus . In P. polionotus , burrows were excavated as early as 17 days of age, whereas P. maniculatus did not build burrows until 10 days later. Moreover, the well-known differences in burrow architecture between adults of these species— P. polionotus adults excavate long burrows with an escape tunnel, whereas P. maniculatus dig short, single-tunnel burrows [2–4]—were intact in juvenile burrowers. To test whether this juvenile behavior is influenced by early-life environment, we reciprocally cross-fostered pups of both species. Fostering did not alter the characteristic Burrowing behavior of either species, suggesting that these differences are genetic. In backcross hybrids, we show that precocious Burrowing and adult tunnel length are genetically correlated and that a P. polionotus allele linked to tunnel length variation in adults is also associated with precocious onset of Burrowing in juveniles, suggesting that the same genetic region—either a single gene with pleiotropic effects or linked genes—influences distinct aspects of the same behavior at these two life stages. These results raise the possibility that genetic variants affect behavioral drive (i.e., motivation) to burrow and thereby affect both the developmental timing and adult expression of Burrowing behavior.

  • evolution and genetics of precocious Burrowing behavior in peromyscus mice
    bioRxiv, 2017
    Co-Authors: Hillery C Metz, Nicole L Bedford, Hopi E Hoekstra

    Abstract:

    A central challenge in biology is to understand how innate behaviors evolve between closely related species. One way to elucidate how differences arise is to compare the development of behavior in species with distinct adult traits. Here, we report that Peromyscus polionotus is strikingly precocious with regard to Burrowing behavior, but not other behaviors, compared to its sister species P. maniculatus . In P. polionotus , burrows were excavated as early as 17 days of age, while P. maniculatus did not build burrows until 10 days later. Moreover, the well-known differences in burrow architecture between adults of these species — P. polionotus adults excavate long burrows with an escape tunnel, while P. maniculatus dig short, single-tunnel burrows — were intact in juvenile burrowers. To test whether this juvenile behavior is influenced by early-life environment, pups of both species were reciprocally cross-fostered. Fostering did not alter the characteristic Burrowing behavior of either species, suggesting these differences are genetic. In backcross F2 hybrids, we show that precocious Burrowing and adult tunnel length are genetically correlated, and that a single P. polionotus allele in a genomic region linked to adult tunnel length is predictive of precocious burrow construction. The co-inheritance of developmental and adult traits indicates the same genetic region — either a single gene with pleiotropic effects, or closely linked genes — acts on distinct aspects of the same behavior across life stages. Such genetic variants likely affect behavioral drive (i.e. motivation) to burrow, and thereby affect both the development and adult expression of Burrowing behavior.

Hillery C Metz – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • evolution and genetics of precocious Burrowing behavior in peromyscus mice
    Current Biology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Hopi E Hoekstra, Hillery C Metz, Nicole L Bedford

    Abstract:

    Summary A central challenge in biology is to understand how innate behaviors evolve between closely related species. One way to elucidate how differences arise is to compare the development of behavior in species with distinct adult traits [1]. Here, we report that Peromyscus polionotus is strikingly precocious with regard to Burrowing behavior, but not other behaviors, compared to its sister species P. maniculatus . In P. polionotus , burrows were excavated as early as 17 days of age, whereas P. maniculatus did not build burrows until 10 days later. Moreover, the well-known differences in burrow architecture between adults of these species— P. polionotus adults excavate long burrows with an escape tunnel, whereas P. maniculatus dig short, single-tunnel burrows [2–4]—were intact in juvenile burrowers. To test whether this juvenile behavior is influenced by early-life environment, we reciprocally cross-fostered pups of both species. Fostering did not alter the characteristic Burrowing behavior of either species, suggesting that these differences are genetic. In backcross hybrids, we show that precocious Burrowing and adult tunnel length are genetically correlated and that a P. polionotus allele linked to tunnel length variation in adults is also associated with precocious onset of Burrowing in juveniles, suggesting that the same genetic region—either a single gene with pleiotropic effects or linked genes—influences distinct aspects of the same behavior at these two life stages. These results raise the possibility that genetic variants affect behavioral drive (i.e., motivation) to burrow and thereby affect both the developmental timing and adult expression of Burrowing behavior.

  • evolution and genetics of precocious Burrowing behavior in peromyscus mice
    bioRxiv, 2017
    Co-Authors: Hillery C Metz, Nicole L Bedford, Hopi E Hoekstra

    Abstract:

    A central challenge in biology is to understand how innate behaviors evolve between closely related species. One way to elucidate how differences arise is to compare the development of behavior in species with distinct adult traits. Here, we report that Peromyscus polionotus is strikingly precocious with regard to Burrowing behavior, but not other behaviors, compared to its sister species P. maniculatus . In P. polionotus , burrows were excavated as early as 17 days of age, while P. maniculatus did not build burrows until 10 days later. Moreover, the well-known differences in burrow architecture between adults of these species — P. polionotus adults excavate long burrows with an escape tunnel, while P. maniculatus dig short, single-tunnel burrows — were intact in juvenile burrowers. To test whether this juvenile behavior is influenced by early-life environment, pups of both species were reciprocally cross-fostered. Fostering did not alter the characteristic Burrowing behavior of either species, suggesting these differences are genetic. In backcross F2 hybrids, we show that precocious Burrowing and adult tunnel length are genetically correlated, and that a single P. polionotus allele in a genomic region linked to adult tunnel length is predictive of precocious burrow construction. The co-inheritance of developmental and adult traits indicates the same genetic region — either a single gene with pleiotropic effects, or closely linked genes — acts on distinct aspects of the same behavior across life stages. Such genetic variants likely affect behavioral drive (i.e. motivation) to burrow, and thereby affect both the development and adult expression of Burrowing behavior.

Amos G Winter – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • design of a low energy self contained subsea Burrowing robot based on localized fluidization exhibited by atlantic razor clams
    ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, 2014
    Co-Authors: Daniel S Dorsch, Amos G Winter

    Abstract:

    The Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) burrows by contracting its valves, fluidizing the surrounding soil and reducing Burrowing drag. Moving through a fluidized, rather than static, soil requires energy that scales linearly with depth, rather than depth squared. In addition to providing an advantage for the animal, localized fluidization may provide significant value to engineering applications such as vehicle anchoring and underwater pipe installation. This paper presents the design of a self-actuated, radially expanding Burrowing mechanism that utilizes E. directus’ Burrowing methods. The device is sized to be a platform for an anchoring system for autonomous underwater vehicles. Scaling relationships presented allow for design of Burrowing systems of different sizes for a variety of applications. The minimum contraction time for a given device size governs how quickly the device must move. Contraction displacement necessary to achieve fluidization is presented. The maximum force for a given size mechanism is also calculated, and allows for sizing actuators for different systems. This paper presents the design of a system that will allow testing of these parameters in a laboratory setting. These relationships provide the optimal sizing and power needs for various size subsea borrowing systems.Copyright © 2014 by ASME

  • identification and evaluation of the atlantic razor clam ensis directus for biologically inspired subsea Burrowing systems
    Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Amos G Winter, A E Hosoi

    Abstract:

    Synopsis In this article, we identify and analyze a subsea organism to serve as a model for biologically inspired Burrowing technology to be used in applications such as anchoring, installation of cables, and recovery of oil. After inspecting myriad forms of life that live on or within ocean substrates, the Atlantic razor clam, Ensis directis, stood out as an attractive basis for new Burrowing technology because of its low-energy requirements associated with digging (0.21 J/cm), its speed and depth of burrrowing (� 1 cm/s and 70 cm, respectively), and its size and simplicity relative to man-made machines. As anchoring is a prime application for the technology resulting from this work, the performance of an Ensis directus–based anchoring system was compared to existing technologies. In anchoring force per embedment energy, the E. directus–based anchor beats existing technology by at least an order of magnitude. In anchoring force per weight of device, the biologically inspired system weighs less than half that of current anchors. The article concludes with a review of E. directus’s digging strategy, which involves motions of its valves to locally fluidize the substrate to reduce Burrowing drag and energy, and the successful adaptation of E. directus’s Burrowing mechanisms into an engineering system: the RoboClam Burrowing robot, which, like the animal, uses localized fluidization to achieve digging energy that scales linearly with depth, rather than depth squared, for moving through static soil.

  • Teaching RoboClam to Dig: The design, testing, and genetic algorithm optimization of a biomimetic robot
    2010 IEEE RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2010
    Co-Authors: Amos G Winter, Daniel S Dorsch, Robin L. H. Deits, Anette E. Hosoi, Alexander H. Slocum

    Abstract:

    Razor clams (Ensis directus) are one of nature’s most adept Burrowing organisms, able to dig to 70cm at nearly 1cm/s using only 0.21J/cm. We discovered that Ensis reduces Burrowing drag by using motions of its shell to fluidize a thin layer of substrate around its body. We have developed RoboClam, a robot that digs using the same mechanisms as Ensis, to explore how localized fluidization Burrowing can be extended to engineering applications. In this work we present Burrowing performance results of RoboClam in Ensis’ habitat. Using a genetic algorithm to optimize RoboClam’s kinematics, the machine was able to burrow at speeds comparable to Ensis, with a power law relationship between digging energy and depth of n = 1.17, close to the n = 1 achieved by the animal. Pushing through static soil has a theoretical energy-depth power law of n = 2, which means that Ensis-inspired digging motions can provide exponential energetic savings over existing Burrowing methods.