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Shinsuke Tanabe – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
status of Butyltin pollution along the coasts of western japan in 2001 11 years after partial restrictions on the usage of triButyltinMarine Pollution Bulletin, 2005Co-Authors: Ryota Murai, Shinsuke Tanabe, Shin Takahashi, Ichiro TakeuchiAbstract:
Abstract Restrictions on the use of triButyltin (TBT) in aquaculture and on boats in coastal regions, except for ocean-going vessels, have been in place in Japan since 1990 due to the strong toxic effects of TBT on marine organisms. However, TBT pollution along the Japanese coasts has been reported after this legislation was enacted. In order to elucidate the present status of contamination by Butyltin (BT) compounds, we measured the levels of BTs [monoButyltin (MBT), diButyltin (DBT) and TBT] in seawater and Caprella spp. samples obtained from the western part of Seto Inland Sea, Uwa Sea and Uranouchi Bay in western Japan during March to September, 2001. Butyltins were detected in more than 90% of the seawater samples ( n = 59), with average concentrations of 8.2 ± 9.2 (SD) ng MBT L −1 , 3.3 ± 3.0 ng DBT L −1 and 9.0 ± 7.0 ng TBT L −1 . Among 41 stations situated on coastal lines, a sufficient number of Caprella organisms for chemical analysis could be collected from only 16 stations. The Butyltin concentrations in seawater and Caprella samples from Uwa Sea and Uranouchi Bay, in which the dominant industry in both waters is aquaculture, showed significantly higher than or no significant differences from those samples from the western part of Seto Inland Sea, a major heavy-industry area in Japan. As the TBT concentration in seawater increased, the number of Caprella organisms collected decreased. The mean TBT concentration among the seawater samples was above the estimated lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) that reduces the survival rate of Caprella danilevskii . Thus, the present study indicates that TBT is still a potential ecological hazard to the survival of marine invertebrates inhabiting coasts along western Japan, even 11 years after the partial ban on TBT usage was implemented.
Butyltin concentrations along the japanese coast from 1997 to 1999 monitored by caprella spp crustacea amphipodaMarine Environmental Research, 2004Co-Authors: Ichiro Takeuchi, Shinsuke Tanabe, Shin Takahashi, Nobuyuki MiyazakiAbstract:
Abstract The concentrations of Butyltins along the Japanese coastline were investigated from 1997 to 1999, 7 to 9 years after implemantion of legislation limiting the use of triButyltin (TBT) in Japan. Seawater was sampled at 0.5 m depth, and Caprella spp. were collected from Sargassum spp. and aquaculture facilities from 18 areas within four broad areas along the coastline of Japan, i.e., the Pacific coast of northern Japan, the coast along the Sea of Japan, Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, and western Japan. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in 32 of the 63 seawater samples with average concentrations of 4.6 ng MBT/l, 4.5 ng DBT/l and 6.8 ng TBT/l, respectively. Butyltin concentrations in seawater from western Japan indicate “hot spots” even in unpopulated areas. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in all samples of Caprella spp., varying from 2.3 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. penantis R-type from Tobishima Island in the Sea of Japan to 464 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. decipiens Mayer from Amakusa, western Kyushu. The BT concentrations in Caprella spp. form western Japan were significantly higher than those from other areas, including Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, where large scale industry and international ports are located. These results indicate that Butyltin contamination still remains even in unpopulated areas after the regulation on TBT usage, and that the regulation governing TBT usage since 1990 has not been effective enough to concede recovery of shallow water ecosystems around Japan.
Butyltin Contamination in Marine Mammals – A ReviewMarine Pollution Bulletin, 2003Co-Authors: Shinsuke TanabeAbstract:
In order to understand organotin accumulation in marine mammals, the present study determined the concentrations of Butyltins (BTs) in various tissues and organs and described their distribution patterns relative to sex, age and geographical factors. Both cetaceans and pinnipeds showed higher BTs concentrations in the liver amongst various tissues and organs. In addition, noticeably high concentrations were found in the hair of pinnipeds, indicating possible excretion of BTs through shedding. BTs composition in mammals and their prey organisms suggested that pinnipeds have a stronger capacity to degrade BTs as compared to cetaceans. No age trends of BTs concentrations were observed in pinnipeds, while cetaceans showed increasing levels in immature growth stages. Comparing Butyltin concentrations in various marine mammals, cetaceans retained higher Butyltin concentrations than pinnipeds. These specific accumulation patterns found in marine mammals are probably attributable to the lower breakdown capacity of BTs in cetaceans and the significant excretion of BTs through shedding in pinnipeds. Unlike organochlorines, comparable residue levels of Butyltins were found in male and female marine mammals. Such a trend suggests that Butyltins are less transferable through gestation and lactation from mother to fetus/pup. On a global perspective, residue levels were found to be prominent in the coastal waters of developed nations. The present contamination by BTs may pose a considerable toxic threat to some coastal species of cetaceans. A relatively high percentage of BTs in total tin was found in the liver of cetaceans. This finding suggests that the hepatic tin in cetaceans exists predominantly in organic forms such as Butyltin compounds, implying further that tin residues in marine mammals mostly reflects input from anthropogenic sources.
Man He – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
speciation of Butyltin compounds in environmental and biological samples using headspace single drop microextraction coupled with gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometryJournal of Chromatography A, 2008Co-Authors: Qin Xiao, Bin Hu, Man HeAbstract:
Abstract A method based on headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) in combination with gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) was proposed for the speciation analysis of Butyltin compounds in environmental and biological samples. The sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4) and sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH4) were used as the derivatizing reagent for in situ derivatization of the Butyltins. For the two derivatizations, the HS-SDME parameters such as organic solvent, drop volume, sample pH, stirring rate, temperature, extraction time and the ionic strength were examined systematically. The analytical performance including the linearity ranges, limits of detection (LODs) and reproducibilities of the two derivatizations were compared under the respective optimized conditions. Derivatization with NaBEt4 proved to be more sensitive and robust than that with NaBH4, leading to the LODs of 1.4 ng/L for MBT, 1.8 ng/L for DBT and 0.8 ng/L for TBT. The reproducibilities, expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs), were in the range of 1.1–5.3% (c =1 μg/L, n = 3). With tripropyltin (TPrT) as internal standard, HS-SDME–GC-ICP-MS with NaBEt4 derivatization was applied for the speciation analysis of Butyltins in real seawater and shellfish samples. The Butyltins found in the real-world samples are 31 ng/L MBT, 79 ng/L DBT and 32 ng/L TBT for seawater, and 11.6–30.4 ng/g MBT, 11.8–8.9 ng/g DBT and 12.8–52.6 ng/g TBT for different shellfish samples. For validation, the developed method was also employed for the speciation analysis of Butyltins in certified reference material (CRM) of PACS-2 sediment, and the determined values are in a good agreement with the certified values. The developed method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective and provides an attractive alternative for Butyltins speciation in biological and environmental samples with complex matrix.
Stephen A Wise – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Development and application of an ultratrace method for speciation of organotin compounds in cryogenically archived and homogenized biological materialsAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2007Co-Authors: David Point, W. Clay Davis, Steven J. Christopher, Michael B. Ellisor, Rebecca S. Pugh, Paul R. Becker, Olivier F. X. Donard, Barbara J. Porter, Stephen A WiseAbstract:
An accurate, ultra-sensitive and robust method for speciation of mono, di, and triButyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT) by speciated isotope-dilution gas chromatography–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SID-GC–ICPMS) has been developed for quantification of Butyltin concentrations in cryogenic biological materials maintained in an uninterrupted cryo-chain from storage conditions through homogenization and bottling. The method significantly reduces the detection limits, to the low pg g^−1 level (as Sn), and was validated by using the European reference material (ERM) CE477, mussel tissue, produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. It was applied to three different cryogenic biological materials—a fresh-frozen mussel tissue (SRM 1974b) together with complex materials, a protein-rich material (whale liver control material, QC03LH03), and a lipid-rich material (whale blubber, SRM 1945) containing up to 72% lipids. The commutability between frozen and freeze-dried materials with regard to spike equilibration/interaction, extraction efficiency, and the absence of detectable transformations was carefully investigated by applying complementary methods and by varying extraction conditions and spiking strategies. The inter-method results enabled assignment of reference concentrations of Butyltins in cryogenic SRMs and control materials for the first time. The reference concentrations of MBT, DBT, and TBT in SRM 1974b were 0.92 ± 0.06, 2.7 ± 0.4, and 6.58 ± 0.19 ng g^−1 as Sn (wet-mass), respectively; in SRM 1945 they were 0.38 ± 0.06, 1.19 ± 0.26, and 3.55 ± 0.44 ng g^−1, respectively, as Sn (wet-mass). In QC03LH03, DBT and TBT concentrations were 30.0 ± 2.7 and 2.26 ± 0.38 ng g^−1 as Sn (wet-mass). The concentration range of Butyltins in these materials is one to three orders of magnitude lower than in ERM CE477. This study demonstrated that cryogenically processed and stored biological materials are a promising alternative to conventional freeze-dried materials for organotin speciation analysis, because these are, at present, the best conditions for minimizing degradation of thermolabile species and for long-term archival. Finally, the potential of the analytical method was illustrated by analysis of polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) and beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leuca ) liver samples that had been collected in the Arctic and archived at the Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Significant concentrations of Butyltin compounds were found in the samples and provide the first evidence of the presence of this class of contaminant in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Figure Eye catch image
determination of methylmercury and Butyltin compounds in marine biota and sediments using microwave assisted acid extraction solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometric detectionAnalytical Chemistry, 2002Co-Authors: Silke Tutschku, Michele M Schantz, Stephen A WiseAbstract:
A method is described for the determination of methylmercury and Butyltin compounds in marine sediment and tissue using microwave-assisted acid extraction or digestion and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis using gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection (GC−MIP-AES). Using the SPME-GC−MIP-AES method, enrichment factors for methylmercury and Butyltin compounds of 50−100 were achieved, as compared to the typical hexane extraction, and measurements in marine tissue and sediment matrixes were possible at 1−2 μg/kg (methylmercury) and 10−100 ng/kg (Butyltins). The SPME-GC−MIP-AES method was validated using several marine sediment and tissue matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) with certified values for methylmercury and Butyltin compounds. The SPME-GC−MIP-AES method was used to measure methylmercury in four marine tissue CRMs ranging from oyster tissue at 13.0 ± 1.0 μg/kg to fish tissue at 397 ± 13 μg/kg (as Hg dry mass). Results from …