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W P Saunders – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
comparative evaluation of Calcium Hypochlorite and sodium Hypochlorite on soft tissue dissolutionJournal of Endodontics, 2012Co-Authors: Arindam Dutta, W P SaundersAbstract:
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the tissue-dissolution properties of 5% and 10% Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)(2)) with two concentrations (1.36% and 4.65%) of proprietary sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) on bovine muscle tissue. METHODS: The available chlorine concentration of each solution was determined using iodometric titration. Tissue specimens from bovine muscle were weight adjusted (50 ± 5 mg). Ten tissue specimens in each group were immersed in 5 mL each test solution, removed after 5 minutes, blotted dry, and weighed. The process was repeated every 5 minutes with a fresh 5-mL aliquot of the test solution for 60 minutes or until complete tissue dissolution, whichever was quickest. The percentage weight loss of the specimens was calculated over the experimental period. RESULTS: Available chlorine concentrations of the irrigants ranged from 1.36% to 4.65%. All solutions dissolved tissue completely after 60 minutes except 5% Ca(OCl)(2) (99.4% dissolution). Between the 35- and 60-minute test readings, there were no significant differences between the solutions. Chlorax (4.65% NaOCl) (Cerkamed Group, Nisko, Poland) dissolved tissue quicker during the first 35 minutes (P < .05). In this period, the weight loss with 10% Ca(OCl)(2) differed from Chlorax at all time intervals except at 5 and 35 minutes (P < .05); 5% Ca(OCl)(2) showed no significant differences with 10% Ca(OCl)(2) and Tesco bleach (1.36% NaOCl) (Tesco Stores Ltd, Chestnut, UK) in the first 35 minutes except at the 5-minute measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, Chlorax (4.65% NaOCl) dissolved tissue faster than the Ca(OCl)(2) solutions and Tesco thin bleach (1.36% NaOCl) over the first 35 minutes, but there were no significant differences among the solutions thereafter.
Francisco Montagner – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
effect of edta sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite on the inorganic component of root canal dentin a sem analysisMicroscopy Research and Technique, 2019Co-Authors: Luana Roleto Cardoso, Francisco Montagner, Flávia Emi Razera Baldasso, Débora Delai, Patrícia Maria Poli KopperAbstract:
: This study evaluated the influence of canal irrigation protocols with 5.25% Calcium Hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2 ], 5.25% sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% EDTA solution on the inorganic component of root canal dentin. Sixty roots were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10): Saline solution (SS) (control); Saline solution (SSE) +17% EDTA; CH – 5.25% Ca(OCl)2 ; CHE – 5.25% Ca(OCl)2 + 17% EDTA; SH – 5.25% NaOCl; SHE – 5.25% NaOCl +17% EDTA. After canal irrigation, the specimens were longitudinally split and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dentinal tubules were observed in transverse (middle and apical thirds) direction. The images were classified in scores, according to smear layer removal and peritubular dentin alteration, and data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis’s test, followed by Dunn’s test (α = 0.05). In the middle third, all groups with EDTA presented better removal of the smear layer with higher peritubular dentin alteration (p < .05). In the apical third, this happened only in SHE (p < .05). Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl exhibit similar performance to remove smear layer and alteration of the inorganic component in the middle third. In the apical third, NaOCl associated with EDTA showed better performance in smear layer removal.
Calcium Hypochlorite Solutions – An In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Action and Pulp Dissolution.European endodontic journal, 2019Co-Authors: Karen Barea De Paula, Israel Bangel Carlotto, Marconi Df, Fabiana Soares Grecca, Francisco MontagnerAbstract:
Objective: To compare the antimicrobial activity and tissue dissolution capacity of Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) solution with sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.25% concentrations. Methods: To determine the inhibition halos produced by the tested substances against Enterococcus faecalis, the agar diffusion method was employed. Additionally, the broth contact method was used to determine the time required for the inhibition of E. faecalis. Bovine pulp fragments were used to test the dissolution. Half of the pulps were freely deposited samples in cell culture wells, and the remaining samples were fixed on bovine dentine bases. Results: For both Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl solutions, the greatest inhibition zones were observed at 5.25% con-centration. However, the most significant inhibition zone was measured with 5.25% Ca(OCl)2 solution (17.38 mm). Hypochlorite solutions at 2.5% and 5.25% concentrations required less time to inhibit E. faecalis than those at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations (P 0.05). The most effective Hypochlorite solution concentrations were 5.25% and 2.5% for dissolving pulp fragments (P
influence of surfactants addition on the properties of Calcium Hypochlorite solutionsJournal of Applied Oral Science, 2019Co-Authors: Julia Eick Iglesias, Francisco Montagner, Lucas Siqueira Pinheiro, Daniel Eduardo Weibel, Fabiana Soares GreccaAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of surfactants 0.2% or 0.1% cetrimide (Cet) or 0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on 2.5% Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), and compare to sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), regarding the properties of pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The pH and free chlorine content were evaluated by digital pHmeter and by titration, respectively. Surface tension was measured by the platinum ring technique with a Du Nouy tensiometer. The solution’s contact angle in human dentin surfaces was checked by Drop Shape Analyzer software. Bovine pulps were used for pulp dissolution analysis and the dissolving capacity was expressed by percent weight loss. Antimicrobial activity over Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Surfactants addition to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl did not alter the pH, free chlorine content and pulp dissolution properties. Ca(OCl)2 had the highest surface tension among all tested solutions. When surfactants were added to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl, there was a significant reduction of surface tension and contact angle values. The addition of 0.2% or 0.1% Cet enhanced antimicrobial activity of both Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. CONCLUSION: Surfactant addition to 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 has shown acceptable outcomes for pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the addition of 0.2% Cet showed better results for all tested properties.
John E. Thoppil – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Genotoxic assessment of Calcium Hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds—two commonly used water purifying agentsReviews on Environmental Health, 2014Co-Authors: Sandhya Vincent Neelamkavil, John E. ThoppilAbstract:
AbstractThe role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (Calcium Hypochlorite) and
Genotoxic assessment of Calcium Hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.Reviews on environmental health, 2014Co-Authors: Sandhya Vincent Neelamkavil, John E. ThoppilAbstract:
: The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (Calcium Hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p