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Martin Grube – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Extremotolerant Fungi from alpine rock lichens and their phylogenetic relationships
    Fungal Diversity, 2016
    Co-Authors: Lucia Muggia, Antonia Fleischhacker, Theodora Kopun, Martin Grube

    Fungi other than the lichen mycobiont frequently co-occur within lichen thalli and on the same rock in harsh environments. In these situations dark-pigmented mycelial structures are commonly observed on lichen thalli, where they persist under the same stressful conditions as their hosts. Here we used a comprehensive sampling of lichen-associated Fungi from an alpine habitat to assess their phylogenetic relationships with Fungi previously known from other niches. The multilocus phylogenetic analyses suggest that most of the 248 isolates belong to the Chaetothyriomycetes and Dothideomycetes, while a minor fraction represents Sordariomycetes and Leotiomycetes. As many lichens also were infected by phenotypically distinct lichenicolous Fungi of diverse lineages, it remains difficult to assess whether the culture isolates represent these Fungi or are from additional cryptic, extremotolerant Fungi within the thalli. Some of these strains represent yet undescribed lineages within Chaethothyriomycetes and Dothideomycetes, whereas other strains belong to genera of Fungi, that are known as lichen colonizers, plant and human pathogens, rock-inhabiting Fungi, parasites and saprotrophs. The symbiotic structures of the lichen thalli appear to be a shared habitat of phylogenetically diverse stress-tolerant Fungi, which potentially benefit from the lichen niche in otherwise hostile habitats.

  • The Lichen Connections of Black Fungi
    Mycopathologia, 2013
    Co-Authors: Lucia Muggia, Cecile Gueidan, Kerry Knudsen, Gary Perlmutter, Martin Grube

    Many black meristematic Fungi persist on rock surfaces—hostile and exposed habitats where high doses of radiation and periods of desiccation alternate with rain and temperature extremes. To cope with these extremes, rock-inhabiting black Fungi show phenotypic plasticity and produce melanin as cell wall pigments. The rather slow growth rate seems to be an additional prerequisite to oligotrophic conditions. At least some of these Fungi can undergo facultative, lichen-like associations with photoautotrophs. Certain genera presenting different lifestyles are phylogenetic related among the superclass Dothideomyceta. In this paper, we focus on the genus Lichenothelia , which includes border-line lichens, that is, associations of melanised Fungi with algae without forming proper lichen thalli. We provide a first phylogenetic hypothesis to show that Lichenothelia belongs to the superclass Dothideomyceta. Further, culture experiments revealed the presence of co-occurring Fungi in Lichenothelia thalli. These Fungi are related to plant pathogenic Fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) and to other rock-inhabiting lineages (Teratosphaeriaceae). The Lichenothelia thallus-forming Fungi represent therefore consortia of different black fungal strains. Our results suggest a common link between rock-inhabiting meristematic and lichen-forming lifestyles of ascomycetous Fungi.

Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Colonisation of jarrah forest bauxite-mine rehabilitation areas by orchid mycorrhizal Fungi
    Australian Journal of Botany, 2007
    Co-Authors: Margaret Collins, Mark Brundrett, John M. Koch, Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam

    Orchids require mycorrhizal Fungi for germination of seed and growth of seedlings. The colonisation of bauxite-mine rehabilitation areas by orchids is therefore dependent on the availability of both seed and mycorrhizal Fungi. Orchid mycorrhizal Fungi baiting trials were carried out in rehabilitation areas that were 1, 10 and 26 years old (established in 2001, 1992 and 1976) and adjacent unmined jarrah forest areas at Jarrahdale, Western Australia. Fungal baits consisted of buried six-chambered nylon-mesh packets containing seed of six jarrah forest orchid taxa, Caladenia flava subsp. flava R.Br., Disa bracteata Sw., Microtis media subsp. media R.Br., Pterostylis recurva Benth., Pyrorchis nigricans (R.Br.) D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem. and Thelymitra crinita Lindl. Detection of orchid mycorrhizal Fungi was infrequent, especially at the youngest rehabilitation sites where only mycorrhizal Fungi associated with P. recurva were detected. Mycorrhizal Fungi of the other orchid taxa were widespread but sparsely distributed in older rehabilitation and forest areas. Detection of mycorrhizal Fungi varied between taxa and baiting sites for the two survey years (2002 and 2004). Caladenia flava subsp. flava and T. crinita mycorrhizal Fungi were the most frequently detected. The presence of C. flava mycorrhizal Fungi was correlated with leafy litter cover and maximum depth, and soil moisture at the vegetation type scale (50 × 5 m belt transects), as well as tree and litter cover at the microhabitat scale (1-m2 quadrats). The presence of T. crinita mycorrhizal Fungi was positively correlated with soil moisture in rehabilitation areas and low shrub cover in forest. The frequency of detection of orchid mycorrhizal Fungi both at rehabilitated sites (15–25% of baits) and in unmined forest (15–50% of baits) tended to increase with rehabilitation age as vegetation recovered. The failure of some orchid taxa to reinvade rehabilitation areas is unlikely to be entirely due to absence of the appropriate mycorrhizal Fungi. However, since the infrequent detection of Fungi suggests that they occur in isolated patches of soil, the majority of dispersed orchid seeds are likely to perish, especially in recently disturbed habitats.

  • diversity of mycorrhizal Fungi of terrestrial orchids compatibility webs brief encounters lasting relationships and alien invasions
    Fungal Biology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Yumiko Bonnardeaux, Mark Brundrett, John M. Koch, Andrew Batty, Kingsley W Dixon, Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam

    Abstract The diversity of mycorrhizal Fungi associated with an introduced weed-like South African orchid (Disa bracteata) and a disturbance-intolerant, widespread, native West Australian orchid (Pyrorchis nigricans) were compared by molecular identification of the Fungi isolated from single pelotons. Molecular identification revealed both orchids were associated with Fungi from diverse groups in the Rhizoctonia complex with worldwide distribution. Symbiotic germination assays confirmed the majority of Fungi isolated from pelotons were mycorrhizal and a factorial experiment uncovered complex webs of compatibility between six terrestrial orchids and 12 Fungi from Australia and South Africa. Two weed-like (disturbance-tolerant rapidly spreading) orchids — D. bracteata and the indigenous Australian Microtis media, had the broadest webs of mycorrhizal Fungi. In contrast, other native orchids had relatively small webs of Fungi (Diuris magnifica and Thelymitra crinita), or germinated exclusively with their own fungus (Caladenia falcata and Pterostylis sanguinea). Orchids, such as D. bracteata and M. media, which form relationships with diverse webs of Fungi, had apparent specificity that decreased with time, as some Fungi had brief encounters with orchids that supported protocorm formation but not subsequent seedling growth. The interactions between orchid mycorrhizal Fungi and their hosts are discussed.

Scott N. Johnson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aboveground resource allocation in response to root herbivory as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis
    Plant and Soil, 2019
    Co-Authors: Adam Frew, Jeff R. Powell, Scott N. Johnson

    Aims Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi associate with the majority of terrestrial plants, influencing their growth, nutrient uptake and defence chemistry. Consequently, AM Fungi can significantly impact plant-herbivore interactions, yet surprisingly few studies have investigated how AM Fungi affect plant responses to root herbivores. This study aimed to investigate how AM Fungi affect plant tolerance mechanisms to belowground herbivory. Methods We examined how AM Fungi affect plant ( Saccharum spp. hybrid) growth, nutrient dynamics and secondary chemistry (phenolics) in response to attack from a root-feeding insect ( Dermolepida albohirtum ). Results Root herbivory reduced root mass by almost 27%. In response, plants augmented investment in aboveground biomass by 25%, as well as increasing carbon concentrations. The AM Fungi increased aboveground biomass, phosphorus and carbon. Meanwhile, root herbivory increased foliar phenolics by 31% in mycorrhizal plants, and increased arbuscular colonisation of roots by 75% overall. AM Fungi also decreased herbivore performance, potentially via increasing root silicon concentrations. Conclusions Our results suggest that AM Fungi may be able to augment plant tolerance to root herbivory via resource allocation aboveground and, at the same time, enhance plant root resistance by increasing root silicon. The ability of AM Fungi to facilitate resource allocation aboveground in this way may be a more widespread strategy for plants to cope with belowground herbivory.

Mohammad Reza Samaei – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effect of temperature on airborne filamentous Fungi in the indoor and outdoor space of a hospital
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2019
    Co-Authors: Fariba Abbasi, Mohammad Reza Samaei

    Fungi are one of the bioaerosols in indoor air of hospitals. They have adverse effects on staff and patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three incubation temperature on the density and composition of airborne Fungi in an indoor and outdoor space of hospital. Sabouraud dextrose agar was used for culture the Fungi. For improvement of aseptic properties, chloramphenicol was added to this medium. The density of airborne Fungi was less than 282 CFU/m^3. The highest density was detected in emergency room and the lowest of them was in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and operation room (OR). Results showed that Fungi levels at 25 °C were higher than 37 and 15 °C ( p  = 0.006). In addition, ten different genera of Fungi were identified in all departments. The predominant Fungi were Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Aspergillus niger. Moreover, the density and trend of distribution of Fusaruim spp. in the indoor space was directivity to outdoor space by ventilation system. The present study has provided that incubation temperature had effect on airborne Fungi remarkably. We are suggested that more studies would be conducted on incubation temperature and other ambient factors on airborne Fungi.

Michael J Bidochka – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles endophytic insect pathogenic Fungi
    Plant Molecular Biology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Larissa Barelli, Soumya Moonjely, Scott W Behie, Michael J Bidochka

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of Fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic Fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these Fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these Fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous Fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.