Symbiosis

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Martin Parniske - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • evolution of root endoSymbiosis with bacteria how novel are nodules
    Trends in Plant Science, 2009
    Co-Authors: Katharina Markmann, Martin Parniske
    Abstract:

    Plants form diverse symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria to gain access to ammonium, a product of the prokaryote-exclusive enzyme nitrogenase. Improving the symbiotic effectiveness of crop plants like maize, wheat or rice is a highly topical challenge and could help reduce the need for energy-intense nitrogen fertilizer in staple food production. Root nodule Symbiosis (RNS) constitutes one of the most productive nitrogen-fixing systems, but it is restricted to a small group of related angiosperms. Here, we review the genetic regulation of RNS and its interconnections with other plant Symbiosis or plant developmental programs. Since RNS uses genetic programs that are widely conserved in land plants, we evaluate the prospects for a transfer to plants that are currently non-nodulating.

  • functional adaptation of a plant receptor kinase paved the way for the evolution of intracellular root symbioses with bacteria
    PLOS Biology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Katharina Markmann, Gabor Giczey, Martin Parniske
    Abstract:

    Nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS) occur in two major forms—Actinorhiza and legume-rhizobium Symbiosis—which differ in bacterial partner, intracellular infection pattern, and morphogenesis. The phylogenetic restriction of nodulation to eurosid angiosperms indicates a common and recent evolutionary invention, but the molecular steps involved are still obscure. In legumes, at least seven genes—including the Symbiosis receptor-kinase gene SYMRK—are essential for the interaction with rhizobia bacteria and for the Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) Symbiosis with phosphate-acquiring fungi, which is widespread in occurrence and believed to date back to the earliest land plants. We show that SYMRK is also required for Actinorhiza Symbiosis of the cucurbit Datisca glomerata with actinobacteria of the genus Frankia, revealing a common genetic basis for both forms of RNS. We found that SYMRK exists in at least three different structural versions, of which the shorter forms from rice and tomato are sufficient for AM, but not for functional endoSymbiosis with bacteria in the legume Lotus japonicus. Our data support the idea that SYMRK sequence evolution was involved in the recruitment of a pre-existing signalling network from AM, paving the way for the evolution of intracellular root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Katharina Markmann - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • evolution of root endoSymbiosis with bacteria how novel are nodules
    Trends in Plant Science, 2009
    Co-Authors: Katharina Markmann, Martin Parniske
    Abstract:

    Plants form diverse symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria to gain access to ammonium, a product of the prokaryote-exclusive enzyme nitrogenase. Improving the symbiotic effectiveness of crop plants like maize, wheat or rice is a highly topical challenge and could help reduce the need for energy-intense nitrogen fertilizer in staple food production. Root nodule Symbiosis (RNS) constitutes one of the most productive nitrogen-fixing systems, but it is restricted to a small group of related angiosperms. Here, we review the genetic regulation of RNS and its interconnections with other plant Symbiosis or plant developmental programs. Since RNS uses genetic programs that are widely conserved in land plants, we evaluate the prospects for a transfer to plants that are currently non-nodulating.

  • functional adaptation of a plant receptor kinase paved the way for the evolution of intracellular root symbioses with bacteria
    PLOS Biology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Katharina Markmann, Gabor Giczey, Martin Parniske
    Abstract:

    Nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS) occur in two major forms—Actinorhiza and legume-rhizobium Symbiosis—which differ in bacterial partner, intracellular infection pattern, and morphogenesis. The phylogenetic restriction of nodulation to eurosid angiosperms indicates a common and recent evolutionary invention, but the molecular steps involved are still obscure. In legumes, at least seven genes—including the Symbiosis receptor-kinase gene SYMRK—are essential for the interaction with rhizobia bacteria and for the Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) Symbiosis with phosphate-acquiring fungi, which is widespread in occurrence and believed to date back to the earliest land plants. We show that SYMRK is also required for Actinorhiza Symbiosis of the cucurbit Datisca glomerata with actinobacteria of the genus Frankia, revealing a common genetic basis for both forms of RNS. We found that SYMRK exists in at least three different structural versions, of which the shorter forms from rice and tomato are sufficient for AM, but not for functional endoSymbiosis with bacteria in the legume Lotus japonicus. Our data support the idea that SYMRK sequence evolution was involved in the recruitment of a pre-existing signalling network from AM, paving the way for the evolution of intracellular root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Jean Denarié - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A GRAS-Type Transcription Factor with a Specific Function in Mycorrhizal Signaling
    Current Biology - CB, 2012
    Co-Authors: Enrico Gobbato, John F. Marsh, Tatiana Vernie, Ertao Wang, Fabienne Maillet, J. Benjamin Miller, S. Asma Bano, Pascal Ratet, Kirankumar S. Mysore, Jean Denarié
    Abstract:

    Legumes establish mutualistic associations with mycorrhizal fungi and with nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. These interactions occur following plant recognition of Nod factor from rhizobial bacteria and Myc factor from mycorrhizal fungi [1-3]. A common Symbiosis signaling pathway is involved in the recognition of both Nod factor and Myc factor and is required for the establishment of these two symbioses [4-6]. The outcomes of these associations differ, and therefore, despite the commonality in signaling, there must be mechanisms that allow specificity. In Nod factor signaling, a complex of GRAS-domain transcription factors controls gene expression downstream of the Symbiosis signaling pathway. Here, we show that a GRAS-domain transcription factor, RAM1, functions in mycorrhizal-specific signaling. Plants mutated in RAM1 are unable to be colonized by mycorrhizal fungi, with a defect in hyphopodia formation on the surface of the root. RAM1 is specifically required for Myc factor signaling and appears to have no role in Nod factor signaling. RAM1 regulates the expression of RAM2, a glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase that promotes cutin biosynthesis to enhance hyphopodia formation. We conclude that mycorrhizal signaling downstream of the Symbiosis-signaling pathway has parallels with nodulation-specific signaling and functions to promote mycorrhizal colonization by regulating cutin biosynthesis.

Krzysztof Szczyglowski - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A plant receptor-like kinase required for both bacterial and fungal Symbiosis
    Nature, 2002
    Co-Authors: Silke Stracke, Catherine Kistner, Satoko Yoshida, Lonneke Mulder, Shusei Sato, Takakazu Kaneko, Satoshi Tabata, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard, Krzysztof Szczyglowski
    Abstract:

    Most higher plant species can enter a root Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in which plant carbon is traded for fungal phosphate^ 1 , 2 . This is an ancient Symbiosis, which has been detected in fossils of early land plants^ 3 . In contrast, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses of plants with bacteria evolved more recently, and are phylogenetically restricted to the rosid I clade of plants^ 4 . Both symbioses rely on partially overlapping genetic programmes^ 5 , 6 . We have identified the molecular basis for this convergence by cloning orthologous SYMRK (‘Symbiosis receptor-like kinase’) genes from Lotus and pea, which are required for both fungal and bacterial recognition. SYMRK is predicted to have a signal peptide, an extracellular domain comprising leucine-rich repeats, a transmembrane and an intracellular protein kinase domain. Lotus SYMRK is required for a symbiotic signal transduction pathway leading from the perception of microbial signal molecules to rapid Symbiosis-related gene activation. The perception of symbiotic fungi and bacteria is mediated by at least one common signalling component, which could have been recruited during the evolution of root nodule symbioses from the already existing arbuscular mycorrhiza Symbiosis.

Jiri Hulcr - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Bark beetle mycobiome: collaboratively defined research priorities on a widespread insect-fungus Symbiosis
    Symbiosis, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jiri Hulcr, Irene Barnes, Z. Wilhelm Beer, Tuan A. Duong, Romina Gazis, Andrew J. Johnson, Michelle A. Jusino, Matthew T. Kasson, You Li, Shannon Lynch
    Abstract:

    One of the main threats to forests in the Anthropocene are novel or altered interactions among trees, insects and fungi. To critically assess the contemporary research on bark beetles, their associated fungi, and their relationships with trees, the international Bark Beetle Mycobiome research coordination network has been formed. The network comprises 22 researchers from 17 institutions. This forward-looking review summarizes the group’s assessment of the current status of the bark beetle mycobiome research field and priorities for its advancement. Priorities include data mobility and standards, the adoption of new technologies for the study of these symbioses, reconciliation of conflicting paradigms, and practices for robust inference of Symbiosis and tree epidemiology. The Net work proposes contemporary communication strategies to interact with the global community of researchers studying symbioses and natural resource managers. We conclude with a call to the broader scientific community to participate in the network and contribute their perspectives.

  • Lipids and small metabolites provisioned by ambrosia fungi to symbiotic beetles are phylogeny-dependent, not convergent
    The ISME Journal, 2020
    Co-Authors: Yin-tse Huang, James Skelton, Jiri Hulcr
    Abstract:

    Long-term symbiotic associations often lead to reciprocal adaptation between the involved entities. One of the main challenges for studies of such symbioses is differentiating adaptation from neutral processes and phylogenetic background. Ambrosia fungi, cultivated by ambrosia beetles as their sole food source, provide an excellent model to study evolutionary adaptation in a comparative framework because they evolved many times, and each origin bears features seemingly convergently adapted to the Symbiosis. We tested whether the symbiotic lifestyle of unrelated ambrosia fungi has led to convergence in the key feature of the symbiotic phenotype—nutrition provisioning to the vector beetles. We compared conidia and mycelium content in three phylogenetic pairs of ambrosia fungi and their closely related nonambrosia relatives using an untargeted metabolomic assay. Multivariate analysis of 311 polar metabolites and 14063 lipid features revealed no convergence of nutrient content across ambrosia lineages. Instead, most variation of the metabolome composition was explained by phylogenetic relationships among the fungi. Thus the overall metabolome evolution of each ambrosia fungus is mostly driven by its inherited metabolism rather than the transition toward Symbiosis. We identified eight candidate lipid compounds with expression levels different between the swollen ambrosia spores and other tissues, but they were not consistently elevated across ambrosia fungi. We conclude that ambrosia provisions consist either of nonspecific nutrients in elevated amounts, or of metabolites that are specific to each of the ambrosia symbioses.

  • The ambrosia Symbiosis is specific in some species and promiscuous in others: evidence from community pyrosequencing
    The ISME Journal, 2015
    Co-Authors: Martin Kostovcik, Craig C Bateman, Miroslav Kolarik, Lukasz L Stelinski, Bjarte H Jordal, Jiri Hulcr
    Abstract:

    Symbioses are increasingly seen as dynamic ecosystems with multiple associates and varying fidelity. Symbiont specificity remains elusive in one of the most ecologically successful and economically damaging eukaryotic symbioses: the ambrosia Symbiosis of wood-boring beetles and fungi. We used multiplexed pyrosequencing of amplified internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries to document the communities of fungal associates and symbionts inside the mycangia (fungus transfer organ) of three ambrosia beetle species, Xyleborus affinis , Xyleborus ferrugineus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus . We processed 93 beetle samples from 5 locations across Florida, including reference communities. Fungal communities within mycangia included 14–20 fungus species, many more than reported by culture-based studies. We recovered previously known nutritional symbionts as members of the core community. We also detected several other fungal taxa that are equally frequent but whose function is unknown and many other transient species. The composition of fungal assemblages was significantly correlated with beetle species but not with locality. The type of mycangium appears to determine specificity: two Xyleborus with mandibular mycangia had multiple dominant associates with even abundances; Xylosandrus crassiusculus (mesonotal mycangium) communities were dominated by a single symbiont, Ambrosiella sp. Beetle mycangia also carried many fungi from the environment, including plant pathogens and endophytes. The ITS2 marker proved useful for ecological analyses, but the taxonomic resolution was limited to fungal genus or family, particularly in Ophiostomatales, which are under-represented in our amplicons as well as in public databases. This initial analysis of three beetle species suggests that each clade of ambrosia beetles and each mycangium type may support a functionally and taxonomically distinct Symbiosis.