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Vitamin D

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Reginald C. Tsang - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content anD Vitamin D Status of BreastfeeDing Infants
    Advances in nutrition (Bethesda Md.), 2012
    Co-Authors: Adekunle Dawodu, Reginald C. Tsang
    Abstract:

    There are increasing reports of rickets anD Vitamin D Deficiency worlDwiDe. BreastfeeDing without aDequate sunlight exposure anD Vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the Drive to promote anD increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeDing, the relationship among maternal Vitamin D status, Vitamin D concentration of human milk, anD hence Vitamin D status of breastfeeDing infants Deserves reassessment. This review proviDes current information on the interrelationship between maternal Vitamin D status anD the Vitamin D status of the breastfeeDing infant. It also reviews the results of ongoing research on the effect of high-Dose maternal Vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in the breastfeeDing mother-infant DyaD.

  • Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content anD Vitamin D Status
    2012
    Co-Authors: Adekunle Dawodu, Reginald C. Tsang
    Abstract:

    There are increasing reports of rickets anD Vitamin D Deficiency worlDwiDe. BreastfeeDing without aDequate sunlight exposure anD Vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the Drive to promote anD increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeDing, the relationship among maternal Vitamin D status, Vitamin D concentration of human milk, anD hence Vitamin D status of breastfeeDing infants Deserves reassessment. This review proviDes current information on the interrelationship between maternal Vitamin D status anD the Vitamin D status of the breastfeeDing infant. It also reviews the results of ongoing research on the effect of high-Dose maternal Vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in the breastfeeDing mother-infant DyaD. ADv. Nutr. 3: 353–361, 2012.

  • Vitamin D Deficiency anD rickets: possible role of maternal Vitamin D Deficiency.
    Annals of tropical paediatrics, 2007
    Co-Authors: Adekunle Dawodu, Reginald C. Tsang
    Abstract:

    We reaD with interest the paper by Al-Mustafa et al. In some communities especially in the MiDDle East the prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency is high in women of chilD-bearing age anD lactating women owing to limiteD exposure to the sun anD inaDequate intake of Vitamin D. Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency preDisposes to low Vitamin D stores in the newborn since the mother is the major source of Vitamin D During pregnancy. Furthermore Vitamin D status of breastfeD infants is closely relateD to maternal Vitamin D status anD a high prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency has been reporteD among breastfeD infants in populations where maternal Vitamin D Deficiency is common. It has therefore been suggesteD that there is an inter-relationship between maternal Vitamin D Deficiency anD infantile rickets at least in communities such as the MiDDle East where maternal sun exposure is limiteD anD maternal Vitamin D intake inaDequate. StuDies of the relationship between Vitamin D status of rachitic chilDren anD their mothers have shown that mothers of chilDren with rickets have a high prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency anD that there is a positive correlation between serum 25-hyDroxyVitamin D concentrations in mothers anD their chilDren. Thus Vitamin D Deficiency coulD be vieweD as a maternal-chilDhooD problem anD there is a neeD to evaluate the Vitamin D status of mothers of rachitic chilDren as part of a comprehensive treatment anD prevention plan. We suggest that an approach that ensures Vitamin D sufficiency in both mother anD chilD shoulD be emphasiseD in orDer to reDuce the inciDence of infantile rickets. (full text)

Jörg Reichrath - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Sunlight, Vitamin D anD Skin Cancer - Sunlight Vitamin D anD skin cancer.
    Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry, 2012
    Co-Authors: Rebecca S. Mason, Jörg Reichrath
    Abstract:

    CONTENTS 1. Sunlight, UV-RaDiation, Vitamin D anD Skin Cancer: How Much Sunlight Do We NeeD?... 1 Michael F. Holick Abstract... 1 Prehistorical anD Historic Perspectives... 1 PhotoproDuction of Vitamin D3... 2 Factors Controlling Cutaneous Vitamin D Synthesis... 2 Sources anD Metabolism of Vitamin D... 4 Role of Vitamin D in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases... 5 Vitamin D Deficiency PanDemic... 7 Sunlight, Vitamin D anD the Skin Cancer ConunDrum... 7 Conclusion... 10 2. Solar Ultrav iolet IrraDiance anD Cancer InciDence anD Mortality... 16 William B. Grant IntroDuction... 16 Cancer... 16 Other Diseases for Which Solar UVB anD Vitamin D Are Beneficial/Protective... 25 Summary anD Conclusion... 25 3. Vitamin D Status anD Cancer InciDence anD Mortality... 31 EDwarD Giovannucci IntroDuction... 31 Ecologic StuDies of Sun Exposure... 32 Case-Control anD Cohort StuDies of Sun Exposure... 32 Prospective StuDies of Circulating 25(OH)Vitamin D anD Cancer Risk... 33 StuDies of Vitamin D Intake... 35 RanDomizeD Trial of Vitamin D Intake anD Colorectal Cancer... 36 Solar RaDiation, Vitamin D anD Survival Rate of Colon Cancer... 36 Vitamin D anD Cancer Rates in UniteD States Black Men... 37 Synthesis of EviDence RegarDing Sun Exposure, Vitamin D anD Cancer InciDence anD Mortality... 38 Implications for Future Research... 39 4. Sun Exposure anD Cancer Surviva l in Norway: Changes in the Risk of Death with Season of Diagnosis anD LatituDe... 43 Alina Carmen Porojnicu, Arne Dahlback anD Johan Moan Abstract... 43 IntroDuction...

Adekunle Dawodu - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content anD Vitamin D Status of BreastfeeDing Infants
    Advances in nutrition (Bethesda Md.), 2012
    Co-Authors: Adekunle Dawodu, Reginald C. Tsang
    Abstract:

    There are increasing reports of rickets anD Vitamin D Deficiency worlDwiDe. BreastfeeDing without aDequate sunlight exposure anD Vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the Drive to promote anD increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeDing, the relationship among maternal Vitamin D status, Vitamin D concentration of human milk, anD hence Vitamin D status of breastfeeDing infants Deserves reassessment. This review proviDes current information on the interrelationship between maternal Vitamin D status anD the Vitamin D status of the breastfeeDing infant. It also reviews the results of ongoing research on the effect of high-Dose maternal Vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in the breastfeeDing mother-infant DyaD.

  • Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content anD Vitamin D Status
    2012
    Co-Authors: Adekunle Dawodu, Reginald C. Tsang
    Abstract:

    There are increasing reports of rickets anD Vitamin D Deficiency worlDwiDe. BreastfeeDing without aDequate sunlight exposure anD Vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the Drive to promote anD increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeDing, the relationship among maternal Vitamin D status, Vitamin D concentration of human milk, anD hence Vitamin D status of breastfeeDing infants Deserves reassessment. This review proviDes current information on the interrelationship between maternal Vitamin D status anD the Vitamin D status of the breastfeeDing infant. It also reviews the results of ongoing research on the effect of high-Dose maternal Vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in the breastfeeDing mother-infant DyaD. ADv. Nutr. 3: 353–361, 2012.

  • Vitamin D Deficiency anD rickets: possible role of maternal Vitamin D Deficiency.
    Annals of tropical paediatrics, 2007
    Co-Authors: Adekunle Dawodu, Reginald C. Tsang
    Abstract:

    We reaD with interest the paper by Al-Mustafa et al. In some communities especially in the MiDDle East the prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency is high in women of chilD-bearing age anD lactating women owing to limiteD exposure to the sun anD inaDequate intake of Vitamin D. Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency preDisposes to low Vitamin D stores in the newborn since the mother is the major source of Vitamin D During pregnancy. Furthermore Vitamin D status of breastfeD infants is closely relateD to maternal Vitamin D status anD a high prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency has been reporteD among breastfeD infants in populations where maternal Vitamin D Deficiency is common. It has therefore been suggesteD that there is an inter-relationship between maternal Vitamin D Deficiency anD infantile rickets at least in communities such as the MiDDle East where maternal sun exposure is limiteD anD maternal Vitamin D intake inaDequate. StuDies of the relationship between Vitamin D status of rachitic chilDren anD their mothers have shown that mothers of chilDren with rickets have a high prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency anD that there is a positive correlation between serum 25-hyDroxyVitamin D concentrations in mothers anD their chilDren. Thus Vitamin D Deficiency coulD be vieweD as a maternal-chilDhooD problem anD there is a neeD to evaluate the Vitamin D status of mothers of rachitic chilDren as part of a comprehensive treatment anD prevention plan. We suggest that an approach that ensures Vitamin D sufficiency in both mother anD chilD shoulD be emphasiseD in orDer to reDuce the inciDence of infantile rickets. (full text)

Michael F. Holick - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Vitamin D anD neurocognitive function
    Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2014
    Co-Authors: Mathias Schlogl, Michael F. Holick
    Abstract:

    In recent years, emerging eviDence has linkeD Vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium anD bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive Decline. The importance of Vitamin D 3 in reDucing the risk of these Diseases continues to increase Due to the fact that an increasing portion of the population in DevelopeD countries has a significant Vitamin D Deficiency. The olDer population is at an especially high risk for Vitamin D Deficiency Due to the DecreaseD cutaneous synthesis anD Dietary intake of Vitamin D. Recent stuDies have confirmeD an association between cognitive impairment, Dementia, anD Vitamin D Deficiency. There is a neeD for well-DesigneD ranDomizeD trials to assess the benefits of Vitamin D anD lifestyle interventions in persons with milD cognitive impairment anD Dementia.

  • Photobiology of Vitamin D
    Vitamin D, 2010
    Co-Authors: Tai C. Chen, Michael F. Holick
    Abstract:

    The major function of Vitamin D (either Vitamin D2 or D3) is to maintain healthy bone. Most humans obtain their Vitamin D requirement through casual exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet B anD from Dietary intake. The cutaneous synthesis of Vitamin D is a function of 7-DehyDrocholesterol concentration in epiDermis, melanin pigmentation, anD the solar zenith angle which DepenDs on latituDe, season, anD time of Day. Our recent stuDy also inDicates that altituDe may influence the proDuction of preVitamin D3. One area which has shown more progress During the past DecaDe is the use of simulateD sunlamp to improve Vitamin D proDuction in patients with intestinal malabsorption anD elDerly who were infirmeD or living in northern latituDe. Vitamin D Deficiency is common in infants, chilDren, anD aDults worlDwiDe. The major cause of Vitamin D Deficiency globally is an unDerappreciation of the crucial role of sunlight in proviDing humans with their Vitamin D requirement. The association between Vitamin D Deficiency anD the increaseD risk of cancers, autoimmune Diseases, infectious Diseases, anD carDiovascular Disease inDicates the importance of sunlight, Vitamin D, anD overall health anD well-being of the general population.

  • Vitamin D DisorDers
    Genetic Diagnosis of Endocrine Disorders, 2010
    Co-Authors: Michael F. Holick
    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on DisorDers associateD with Vitamin D metabolism. Vitamin D is essential for the health of bones anD it is responsible for maintaining calcium anD phosphorus metabolism that results in the Development anD maintenance of a healthy skeleton. The genetic Defects in the metabolism anD recognition of Vitamin D leaD to changes in calcium, phosphorus anD bone metabolism that causes skeletal Deformities anD in chilDren, there is often poor mineralization of the bone leaDing to classic rachitic changes in the skeleton. The Deficiency in Vitamin D is stateD to be the most common cause of rickets anD osteomalacia with seconDary hyperparathyroiDism anD low-normal or low levels of serum phosphorus being the other factors. The various Vitamin D DisorDers are further DiscusseD anD incluDe: Vitamin D DepenDent rickets type I or pseuDoVitamin D Deficiency rickets (PDDR), Vitamin D DepenDent rickets type II or hereDitary Vitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR) anD Vitamin D DepenDent rickets type III. The genetic causes of rickets are mentioneD anD are classifieD as X-linkeD hypophosphatemic rickets anD autosomal Dominant hypophosphatemic rickets.

  • Vitamin D anD Health: Evolution, Biologic Functions, anD RecommenDeD Dietary Intakes for Vitamin D
    Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 2009
    Co-Authors: Michael F. Holick
    Abstract:

    Vitamin D Deficiency is now being recognizeD as one of the most common meDical conDitions worlDwiDe. The consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency incluDe poor bone Development anD health as well as increaseD risk of many chronic Diseases incluDing type I Diabetes; rheumatoiD arthritis; Crohn’s Disease; multiple sclerosis; heart Disease; stroke; infectious Diseases; as well as increaseD risk of Dying of many DeaDly cancers incluDing colon, prostate, anD breast. The major source of Vitamin D for most humans is exposure to sunlight. However, avoiDance of sun exposure has resulteD in an epiDemic of Vitamin D Deficiency. Once Vitamin D is maDe in the skin or ingesteD from the Diet, it requires activation steps in the liver anD kiDney to form 25-hyDroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D] anD 1,25-DihyDroxyVitamin D. 25(OH)D is the major circulating form of Vitamin D useD by clinicians to Determine a patient’s Vitamin D status. A blooD level of 25(OH)D 30 ng/ml. Vitamin D intoxication will not occur until a blooD level of 25(OH)D exceeDs 150–200 ng/ml. Both the aDequate intake recommenDations anD safe upper limits for Vitamin D are woefully unDerestimateD. For every 100 IU of Vitamin D ingesteD, the blooD level of 25(OH)D increases by 1 ng/ml. Thus, chilDren During the first year of life neeD at a minimum 400 IU of Vitamin D/Day anD 1,000 IU of Vitamin D/Day may be more beneficial anD will not cause toxicity. The same recommenDation can be maDe for chilDren 1 year anD olDer. For aDults, a minimum of 1,000 IU of Vitamin D/Day is necessary anD 2,000 IU of Vitamin D/Day is preferreD if there is inaDequate sun exposure. The safe upper limit for chilDren can easily be increaseD to 2,000 IU of Vitamin D/Day, anD for aDults, up to 10,000 IU of Vitamin D/Day has been shown to be safe. The goal of this chapter is to give a broaD perspective about Vitamin D anD to introDuce the reaDer to the Vitamin D Deficiency panDemic anD its insiDious consequences on health that will be revieweD in more Detail in the ensuing chapters.

  • Vitamin D Deficiency
    The New England journal of medicine, 2007
    Co-Authors: Michael F. Holick
    Abstract:

    Once fooDs in the UniteD States were fortifieD with Vitamin D, rickets appeareD to have been conquereD, anD many consiDereD major health problems from Vitamin D Deficiency resolveD. But Vitamin D Deficiency is common. This review consiDers the role of Vitamin D in skeletal anD nonskeletal health anD suggests strategies for the prevention anD treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency.

P Selvaraj - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Vitamin D, Vitamin D receptor, anD catheliciDin in the treatment of tuberculosis.
    Vitamins and hormones, 2011
    Co-Authors: P Selvaraj
    Abstract:

    Vitamin D plays a major role in bone mineral Density anD calcium homeostasis. Apart from its classical action, the active form of Vitamin D [1,25-DihyDroxyVitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3))] influences the innate anD aDaptive immune functions through Vitamin D receptor (VDR) that are present in various cells of the immune system. Vitamin D Deficiencies have been associateD with Development of tuberculosis (TB) Disease, causeD by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Vitamin D(3) is shown to enhance macrophage phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis anD increases the proDuction of antimicrobial peptiDe catheliciDin anD killing of M. tuberculosis. During the preantibiotic era, exposure to sunlight anD supplementation of Vitamin D were the methoDs of choice for treatment of TB. Vitamin D supplementation showeD sputum clearance anD raDiological improvement anD reDuction in mortality among human immunoDeficiency virus (HIV)-infecteD patients with TB. VDR gene polymorphisms regulate the immunomoDulatory effect of Vitamin D(3) anD are associateD with faster sputum conversion During anti-TB treatment. The emerging eviDences regarDing immunomoDulatory properties of Vitamin D(3) have rekinDleD interest in Vitamin D as an aDjunct to anti-TB therapy. The current review explains the important potential application of Vitamin D in enhancing the innate immunity to TB anD the role of VDR gene variants on anti-TB treatment.