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4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase

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Kaoru Omichi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • discrimination of porcine glycogen debranching enzyme isozymes by the ratios of their 4 α glucanotransferase and amylo α 1 6 glucosidase activities
    Journal of Biochemistry, 2010
    Co-Authors: Seiko Doi, Yasushi Makino, Kaoru Omichi
    Abstract:

    Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) is a single-chain protein containing distinct active sites that exhibit 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase and amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activities. The ratios of these two activities in porcine liver and muscle GDEs were compared using a set of homologous fluorogenic branched dextrins. For quantifying 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase activity, 6(3)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B3/84), 6(4)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/84), 6(5)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B5/84) and 6(6)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B6/84) were used as substrates and maltohexaose (G6) as the acceptor. The substrate for amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activity was 6(3)-O-alpha-glucosyl-PA-maltotetraose (B3/41). HPLC analysis of the fluorogenic branched dextrin digests in the presence of G6 revealed that GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferases produce the corresponding 6-O-alpha-glucosyl-PA-maltooctaose (GG8PA) and maltononaose (G9). The ratios of the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase activity to amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activity, for the liver and muscle enzymes were respectively 0.240 and 0.0840 for B3/84, 0.204 and 0.0788 for B4/84, 0.145 and 0.0592 for B5/84, and 0.109 and 0.0458 for B6/84. These data clearly indicate that porcine liver and muscle GDEs are different from each other. The ratios of porcine brain GDE were 0.155, 0.131, 0.0990 and 0.0745 for B3/84, B4/84, B5/84 and B6/84, respectively. These results indicate that porcine brain GDE is also unique from liver and muscle enzymes, suggesting that it is either a third enzyme, or a mixture of 45% liver and 55% muscle GDEs.

  • Inspection of the Activator Binding Site for 4-α-Glucanotransferase in Porcine Liver Glycogen Debranching Enzyme with Fluorogenic Dextrins
    Journal of biochemistry, 2009
    Co-Authors: Eriko Yamamoto, Yasushi Makino, Yumiko Watanabe, Kaoru Omichi
    Abstract:

    Recently, we found that alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins accelerated the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase action of porcine liver glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) on Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4(Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-6)Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4GlcPA (B5/84), and proposed the presence of an activator binding site in the GDE molecule. In liver cells, the structures of alpha-glucans proximal to the site GDE acts are not cyclodextrins, but glycogen and its degradation products. To estimate the structural characteristics of intrinsic activators and to inspect the features of the activator binding site, we examined the effects of four fluorogenic dextrins, (Glcalpha1-6)(m)Glcalpha1-4(Glcalpha1-4)(n)GlcPA (B5/51, m = 1, n = 3; B6/61, m = 1, n = 4; B7/71, m = 1, n = 5; G6PA, m = 0, n = 4), on the debranching of B5/84 by porcine liver GDE. The GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase removed the maltotriosyl residue from the maltotetraosyl branch of B5/84, producing Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4(Glcalpha1-6)Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4GlcPA (B5/81). In the presence of G6PA, the removed maltotriosyl residue was transferred to G6PA to give Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4GlcPA (G9PA). In the absence of G6PA, the removed maltotriosyl residue was transferred to water. B7/71, B6/61 and B5/51 did not undergo any changes by the GDE, but they accelerated the action of the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase in removing the maltotriosyl residue. Of the four fluorogenic dextrins examined, B6/61 most strongly accelerated the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase action. The activator binding site is likely to be a space that accommodates the structure of Glcalpha1-6Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glc.

  • Donor Substrate Specificity of 4-α-Glucanotransferase of Porcine Liver Glycogen Debranching Enzyme and Complementary Action to Glycogen Phosphorylase on Debranching
    Journal of biochemistry, 2008
    Co-Authors: Yumiko Watanabe, Yasushi Makino, Kaoru Omichi
    Abstract:

    Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) has both 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase and amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activities. Here, we examined 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase action of porcine liver GDE on four 6(4)-O-alpha-maltooligosyl-pyridylamino(PA)-maltooctaoses, in the presence or absence of an acceptor, maltohexaose. HPLC analysis of digested fluorogenic branched dextrins revealed that in the presence or absence of acceptor, 6(4)-O-alpha-glucosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/81) was liberated from 6(4)-O-alpha-maltopentaosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/85), 6(4)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/84) and 6(4)-O-alpha-maltotriosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/83), whereas 6(4)-O-alpha-maltosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/82) was resistant to the enzyme. The fluorogenic product was further hydrolyzed by amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase to PA-maltooctaose (G8PA) and glucose. The ratio of the rates of 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase actions on B4/85, B4/84 and B4/83 in the absence of the acceptor was 0.15, 0.42 and 1.00, respectively. The rates increased with increasing amounts of acceptor, changing the ratio of the rates to 0.09, 1.00 and 0.60 (with 0.5 mM maltohexaose) and 0.10, 1.00 and 0.58 (with 1.0 mM maltohexaose), respectively. Donor substrate specificity of GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase suggests complementary action of GDE and glycogen phosphorylase on glycogen degradation in the porcine liver. Glycogen phosphorylase degrades the maltooligosaccharide branches of glycogen by phosphorolysis to form maltotetraosyl branches, and phosphorolysis does not proceed further. GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase removes a maltotriosyl residue from the maltotetraosyl branch such that the alpha-1,6-linked glucosyl residue is retained.

Dan Theodorescu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • CD44 and RHAMM are essential for rapid growth of bladder cancer driven by loss of Glycogen Debranching Enzyme (AGL)
    BMC Cancer, 2016
    Co-Authors: Darby Oldenburg, Dan Theodorescu, Benjamin Weinhaus, Steve Cash, Sunny Guin
    Abstract:

    Background Loss of Amylo-alpha-1-6-glucosidase-4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase (AGL) drives rapid proliferation of bladder cancer cells by upregulating Hyaluronic acid(HA) Synthase (HAS2) mediated HA synthesis. However the role of HA receptors CD44 and Hyaluronan Mediated Motility Receptor (RHAMM) in regulating the growth of bladder cancer cells driven by loss of AGL has not been studied. Methods Western blot analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was carried out to study cellular apoptosis with HAS2, CD44 and RHAMM loss in bladder cancer cells with and without AGL expression. Proliferation and softagar assays were carried out to study cellular anchorage dependent and independent growth. Clinicopathologic analysis was carried out on bladder cancer patient datasets. Results Higher amounts of cleaved Cas3, Cas9 and PARP was observed in AGL low bladder cancer cell with loss of HAS2, CD44 or RHAMM. TUNEL staining showed more apoptotic cells with loss of HAS2, CD44 or RHAMM in AGL low bladder cancer cells. This revealed that bladder cancer cells whose aggressive growth is mediated by loss of AGL are susceptible to apoptosis with loss of HAS2, CD44 or RHAMM. Interestingly loss of either CD44 or RHAMM induces apoptosis in different low AGL expressing bladder cancer cell lines. Growth assays showed that loss of CD44 and RHAMM predominantly inhibit anchorage dependent and independent growth of AGL low bladder cancer cells. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that high RHAMM mRNA expression is a marker of poor patient outcome in bladder cancer and patients with high RHAMM and low AGL tumor mRNA expression have poor survival. Conclusion Our findings strongly point to the importance of the HAS2-HA-CD44/RHAMM pathway for rapid growth of bladder cancer cells with loss of AGL and provides rational for targeting this pathway at various steps for “personalized” treatment of bladder cancer patients based of their AGL expression status.

  • CD44 and RHAMM are essential for rapid growth of bladder cancer driven by loss of Glycogen Debranching Enzyme (AGL)
    BMC cancer, 2016
    Co-Authors: Darby Oldenburg, Dan Theodorescu, Benjamin Weinhaus, Steve Cash, Sunny Guin
    Abstract:

    Loss of Amylo-alpha-1-6-glucosidase-4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase (AGL) drives rapid proliferation of bladder cancer cells by upregulating Hyaluronic acid(HA) Synthase (HAS2) mediated HA synthesis. However the role of HA receptors CD44 and Hyaluronan Mediated Motility Receptor (RHAMM) in regulating the growth of bladder cancer cells driven by loss of AGL has not been studied. Western blot analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was carried out to study cellular apoptosis with HAS2, CD44 and RHAMM loss in bladder cancer cells with and without AGL expression. Proliferation and softagar assays were carried out to study cellular anchorage dependent and independent growth. Clinicopathologic analysis was carried out on bladder cancer patient datasets. Higher amounts of cleaved Cas3, Cas9 and PARP was observed in AGL low bladder cancer cell with loss of HAS2, CD44 or RHAMM. TUNEL staining showed more apoptotic cells with loss of HAS2, CD44 or RHAMM in AGL low bladder cancer cells. This revealed that bladder cancer cells whose aggressive growth is mediated by loss of AGL are susceptible to apoptosis with loss of HAS2, CD44 or RHAMM. Interestingly loss of either CD44 or RHAMM induces apoptosis in different low AGL expressing bladder cancer cell lines. Growth assays showed that loss of CD44 and RHAMM predominantly inhibit anchorage dependent and independent growth of AGL low bladder cancer cells. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that high RHAMM mRNA expression is a marker of poor patient outcome in bladder cancer and patients with high RHAMM and low AGL tumor mRNA expression have poor survival. Our findings strongly point to the importance of the HAS2-HA-CD44/RHAMM pathway for rapid growth of bladder cancer cells with loss of AGL and provides rational for targeting this pathway at various steps for “personalized” treatment of bladder cancer patients based of their AGL expression status.

  • loss of glycogen debranching enzyme agl drives bladder tumor growth via induction of hyaluronic acid synthesis
    Clinical Cancer Research, 2016
    Co-Authors: Sunny Guin, Giacomo P. Comi, Dan Theodorescu, Neeraj Agarwal, Carolyn Ritterson Lew, Charles Owens
    Abstract:

    Purpose: We demonstrated that amylo-alpha-1-6-glucosidase-4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase (AGL) is a tumor growth suppressor and prognostic marker in human bladder cancer. Here we determine how AGL loss enhances tumor growth, hoping to find therapeutically tractable targets/pathways that could be used in patients with low AGL–expressing tumors. Experimental Design: We transcriptionally profiled bladder cell lines with different AGL expression. By focusing on transcripts overexpressed as a function of low AGL and associated with adverse clinicopathologic variables in human bladder tumors, we sought to increase the chances of discovering novel therapeutic opportunities. Results: One such transcript was hyaluronic acid synthase 2 ( HAS2 ), an enzyme responsible for hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis. HAS2 expression was inversely proportional to that of AGL in bladder cancer cells and immortalized and normal urothelium. HAS2-driven HA synthesis was enhanced in bladder cancer cells with low AGL, and this drove anchorage-dependent and independent growth. siRNA-mediated depletion of HAS2 or inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) abrogated in vitro and xenograft growth of bladder cancer cells with low AGL. AGL and HAS2 mRNA expression in human tumors was inversely correlated in patient datasets. Patients with high HAS2 and low AGL tumor mRNA expression had poor survival, lending clinical support to xenograft findings that HAS2 drives growth of tumors with low AGL. Conclusions: Our study establishes HAS2-mediated HA synthesis as a driver of growth of bladder cancer with low AGL and provides preclinical rationale for personalized targeting of HAS2/HA signaling in patients with low AGL–expressing tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 22(5); 1274–83. ©2015 AACR .

Yasushi Makino – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • discrimination of porcine glycogen debranching enzyme isozymes by the ratios of their 4 α glucanotransferase and amylo α 1 6 glucosidase activities
    Journal of Biochemistry, 2010
    Co-Authors: Seiko Doi, Yasushi Makino, Kaoru Omichi
    Abstract:

    Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) is a single-chain protein containing distinct active sites that exhibit 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase and amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activities. The ratios of these two activities in porcine liver and muscle GDEs were compared using a set of homologous fluorogenic branched dextrins. For quantifying 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase activity, 6(3)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B3/84), 6(4)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/84), 6(5)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B5/84) and 6(6)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B6/84) were used as substrates and maltohexaose (G6) as the acceptor. The substrate for amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activity was 6(3)-O-alpha-glucosyl-PA-maltotetraose (B3/41). HPLC analysis of the fluorogenic branched dextrin digests in the presence of G6 revealed that GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferases produce the corresponding 6-O-alpha-glucosyl-PA-maltooctaose (GG8PA) and maltononaose (G9). The ratios of the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase activity to amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activity, for the liver and muscle enzymes were respectively 0.240 and 0.0840 for B3/84, 0.204 and 0.0788 for B4/84, 0.145 and 0.0592 for B5/84, and 0.109 and 0.0458 for B6/84. These data clearly indicate that porcine liver and muscle GDEs are different from each other. The ratios of porcine brain GDE were 0.155, 0.131, 0.0990 and 0.0745 for B3/84, B4/84, B5/84 and B6/84, respectively. These results indicate that porcine brain GDE is also unique from liver and muscle enzymes, suggesting that it is either a third enzyme, or a mixture of 45% liver and 55% muscle GDEs.

  • Inspection of the Activator Binding Site for 4-α-Glucanotransferase in Porcine Liver Glycogen Debranching Enzyme with Fluorogenic Dextrins
    Journal of biochemistry, 2009
    Co-Authors: Eriko Yamamoto, Yasushi Makino, Yumiko Watanabe, Kaoru Omichi
    Abstract:

    Recently, we found that alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins accelerated the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase action of porcine liver glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) on Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4(Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-6)Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4GlcPA (B5/84), and proposed the presence of an activator binding site in the GDE molecule. In liver cells, the structures of alpha-glucans proximal to the site GDE acts are not cyclodextrins, but glycogen and its degradation products. To estimate the structural characteristics of intrinsic activators and to inspect the features of the activator binding site, we examined the effects of four fluorogenic dextrins, (Glcalpha1-6)(m)Glcalpha1-4(Glcalpha1-4)(n)GlcPA (B5/51, m = 1, n = 3; B6/61, m = 1, n = 4; B7/71, m = 1, n = 5; G6PA, m = 0, n = 4), on the debranching of B5/84 by porcine liver GDE. The GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase removed the maltotriosyl residue from the maltotetraosyl branch of B5/84, producing Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4(Glcalpha1-6)Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4GlcPA (B5/81). In the presence of G6PA, the removed maltotriosyl residue was transferred to G6PA to give Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4GlcPA (G9PA). In the absence of G6PA, the removed maltotriosyl residue was transferred to water. B7/71, B6/61 and B5/51 did not undergo any changes by the GDE, but they accelerated the action of the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase in removing the maltotriosyl residue. Of the four fluorogenic dextrins examined, B6/61 most strongly accelerated the 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase action. The activator binding site is likely to be a space that accommodates the structure of Glcalpha1-6Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glcalpha1-4Glc.

  • Donor Substrate Specificity of 4-α-Glucanotransferase of Porcine Liver Glycogen Debranching Enzyme and Complementary Action to Glycogen Phosphorylase on Debranching
    Journal of biochemistry, 2008
    Co-Authors: Yumiko Watanabe, Yasushi Makino, Kaoru Omichi
    Abstract:

    Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) has both 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase and amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase activities. Here, we examined 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase action of porcine liver GDE on four 6(4)-O-alpha-maltooligosyl-pyridylamino(PA)-maltooctaoses, in the presence or absence of an acceptor, maltohexaose. HPLC analysis of digested fluorogenic branched dextrins revealed that in the presence or absence of acceptor, 6(4)-O-alpha-glucosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/81) was liberated from 6(4)-O-alpha-maltopentaosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/85), 6(4)-O-alpha-maltotetraosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/84) and 6(4)-O-alpha-maltotriosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/83), whereas 6(4)-O-alpha-maltosyl-PA-maltooctaose (B4/82) was resistant to the enzyme. The fluorogenic product was further hydrolyzed by amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase to PA-maltooctaose (G8PA) and glucose. The ratio of the rates of 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase actions on B4/85, B4/84 and B4/83 in the absence of the acceptor was 0.15, 0.42 and 1.00, respectively. The rates increased with increasing amounts of acceptor, changing the ratio of the rates to 0.09, 1.00 and 0.60 (with 0.5 mM maltohexaose) and 0.10, 1.00 and 0.58 (with 1.0 mM maltohexaose), respectively. Donor substrate specificity of GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase suggests complementary action of GDE and glycogen phosphorylase on glycogen degradation in the porcine liver. Glycogen phosphorylase degrades the maltooligosaccharide branches of glycogen by phosphorolysis to form maltotetraosyl branches, and phosphorolysis does not proceed further. GDE 4-Alpha-Glucanotransferase removes a maltotriosyl residue from the maltotetraosyl branch such that the alpha-1,6-linked glucosyl residue is retained.