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Abrasive Jet Machining

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Fengzhou Fang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • theoretical study on particle velocity in micro Abrasive Jet Machining
    Powder Technology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Ruslan Melentiev, Fengzhou Fang


    Abstract Micro-Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM) is an advanced subtractive Machining technology with ample opportunities to form regular micro-patterns on freeform surfaces. AJM removes material mainly through erosion and abrasion, which transform kinetic energy to fracture and deform substrates. The kinetic energy of a solid particle is tightly connected to its velocity, which is the most significant source of error in precise prediction of a machined feature. The present study involves both theoretical analysis and two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulation of particle velocity fields at the lower end of the micro-scale. The developed model represents the finest particles in a cylindrical nozzle down to an inner diameter of 100 μm. The computed results agree well with the experimental data. It is shown that, due to viscous friction, such nozzles are significantly less efficient in terms of particle saturation with kinetic energy. The study highlights the effects of nozzle diameter and length, air pressure, particle size and density on particle velocity development through the Jet field. Finally, practical recommendations and multiple regression models of maximum particle velocity, location from the nozzle exit and simplex velocity profile approximation are offered for management of particle kinetic energy.

  • recent advances and challenges of Abrasive Jet Machining
    Cirp Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ruslan Melentiev, Fengzhou Fang


    Abstract Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM) is a manufacturing technology based on erosion localization and intensification. AJM has a progressively important influence on the Machining technology market. Over the past 20 years, there has been an exponential growth in the number of papers that discuss AJM. Various innovations and process developments such as intermittent, submerged, thermally assisted and other Jet conditions were proposed. This paper examines AJM’s technological advantages and the variety of Machining operations in different industries where AJM is utilized. Particular attention is devoted to the micro-texturing capabilities of powder blasting and its application in tribology. New evidence of ductile and brittle material removal mechanisms are reviewed together with recently discovered elastic removal mode. The effects of hydraulic, Abrasive and Machining parameters on particles kinetic energy, machined surface roughness and footprint size are described in detail. Nozzle wear has a strong dependence on nozzle materials, its geometry, particles size, hardness, and flow rate. The trend of AJM development is a shift from macro to micro scale. Improvements in micro-Machining resolution, process controlling and erosion prediction are current challenges facing AJM.

Tae Jo Ko – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Thick SU-8 Mask for Micro Channeling of Glass by using Micro Abrasive Jet Machining
    Towards Synthesis of Micro- Nano-systems, 2020
    Co-Authors: Agung Shamsuddin Saragih, Tae Jo Ko


    In this paper, we present the implementation of thick SU-8 layer as a mask for micro Abrasive Jet Machining (micro- AJM) process. We obtained micro channel with aspect ratio 0.33. The micro channel was semicircular shape with 190 μm width and 70 μm depths. We also showed some phenomena happened along the processes which are important to have attention for achieving qualified micro channel for micro fluidic application. We think that repeated sequence of the proposed steps give possibility to fabricate 3D micro channel on a single glass slide.

  • Optimal conditions of SU-8 mask for micro-Abrasive Jet Machining of 3-D freeform brittle materials
    International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 2013
    Co-Authors: Jean Bosco Byiringiro, Tae Jo Ko


    Micro-Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), also called micro-blasting, is a mainstream Machining process that uses Abrasive particles for difficult-to-cut workpieces such as glass, carbides, and ceramics. During the micro-blasting process, non-machined areas are covered by a protective mask. Today, either mask fabrication practice or micro-blasting process is well suited and optimized for producing micro-features on planar workpieces. However, the demand for micro-features on three-dimensional (3-D) freeform substrates in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and lab-on-a-chip devices requires more refined non-planar micro-manufacturing techniques. We focused on devising an appropriate photoresist mask required by micro-AJM processes on the surface of a 3-D freeform workpiece. Fundamental erosion mechanisms based on SU-8 mask properties (hardness, surface roughness, and thickness) were investigated. The optimal conditions were found at an ultraviolet (UV) energy of 12.0752 μJ/μm, focus ratio of 4.8341, and hard baking time of 8.4974 min. Under these settings, the mask hardness and surface roughness were 25.04 HV and 1.14 μm, respectively. The reliability of the fabricated mask was verified through a micro-AJM process. With existing plant conditions, the engraved microfeature dimensions on the surface of a 3-D freeform workpiece were 535.3 μm (width) and 11.6 μm (depth).

  • 3D tool path generation for micro-Abrasive Jet Machining on 3D curved surface
    International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 2013
    Co-Authors: Tae Jo Ko


    Micro-patterns can be carved by Jetting fine particles onto the surface of a workpiece. A mask structure is required to classify the surface regions to be machined. This mask is a plate with a hole that corresponds to the pattern to be carved. Abrasive particles are used to erode the workpiece through the hole in the mask. Recently, Abrasive Jet Machining technology has been applied to workpieces with three-dimensional curved surfaces. To utilize the technology for a three-dimensional workpiece, a mask structure needs to be built on the workpiece. Microstereolithography can be used to build this three-dimensional mask for the workpiece. Consequently, process planning technology for the movement of the Abrasive Jet nozzle should be developed. It should follow the three-dimensional mask and workpiece at a specific distance to achieve uniform Machining and a better surface finish. This paper introduces a process planning technique that can automatically generate a three-dimensional Machining path for a three-dimensional mask and workpiece. A verification example and an application example are also shown.

Stephen C. Veldhuis – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • effects on tool performance of cutting edge prepared by pressurized air wet Abrasive Jet Machining pawajm
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Wanting Wang, Dirk Biermann, A F M Arif, Robert Asmuth, Stephen C. Veldhuis


    Abstract Edge preparation techniques are used to shape a proper edge microgeometry for enhanced tool performance. However, depending on the edge preparation method, the edge properties are also altered. Most of the reported work is limited to the effect of edge micro-geometry. In this paper, cutting edges prepared by pressurized air wet Abrasive Jet Machining (PAWAJM) were evaluated from several aspects including tool edge geometries, tool surface quality and topographies, edge hardness (H) and residual stresses. Furthermore, the influence of the prepared edge on the tool performance of uncoated tungsten carbide cutting inserts with different average cutting edge rounding ( S ¯ ) as well as different form factor (K) were experimentally investigated through the orthogonal turning of AISI 4140 alloy steel. Results show that the performance of the prepared cutting edge depends on the combined effect of the initial state of edge geometry and edge properties For symmetric edges (form factor K = 1), the optimum range for average cutting edge rounding ( S ¯ ) was found to be 20 μm to 30 μm when using cemented carbide tools for dry Machining AISI 4140 steel at a feed rate (f) =0.1 mm/rev, width of cut = 3 mm, and cutting speed (vc) = 300 m/min.

  • Effect of edge preparation technologies on cutting edge properties and tool performance
    The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Wanting Wang, Dirk Biermann, Robert Aßmuth, Md Khalid Saifullah, A F M Arif, Stephen C. Veldhuis


    Edge preparation has gained widespread use due to its low cost and high impact. Various edge preparation methods are reported in the literature. Choice of edge preparation techniques influences the edge properties and the ensuing tool performance. The current work investigates the influence of three different edge preparation methods, brushing, drag finishing, and wet Abrasive Jet Machining on the performance of tungsten carbide inserts during orthogonal turning. Edge preparation not only changes the geometry but also the properties of the edge. Experimental results show that a drag finished edge has the lowest edge surface roughness (Ra = 0.42 μm), while Abrasive Jet Machining can induce 63% greater compressive residual stress than the unprepared tool. Reduction in tool wear was observed at the same stage of cutting length in the prepared edges alongside improved edge hardness. A thermomechanical finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the thermomechanical behavior of all the cutting edges. Results demonstrate that the use of prepared cutting edges enhances stress distribution and reduces the temperature. Experimental results confirm that the drag finished edge has the best overall performance out of the three edge techniques with lower cutting temperature, better stress distribution, lower cutting forces, reduced flank wear, and reduced roughness of the machined surface finish.