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Dirk W. Lachenmeier – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Open Access Absinthe, Absinthism and Thujone – New Insight into the Spirit's Impact on Public Health
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier, David Nathan-maister, Theodore A. Breaux, J P Luaute, Joachim Emmert

    Abstract:

    Abstract: Absinthe, a strong alcoholic aperitif, is notorious for containing the compound ‘thujone’, which has been commonly regarded as its ‘active ingredient’. It has been widely theorized that the thujone content of vintage Absinthe made it harmful to public health, and caused the distinct syndrome absinthism, which was extensively described in the literature prior to the spirit’s ban in 1915. The interdisciplinary research presented in this paper shows that 1) absinthism cannot be distinguished from common alcoholism in the medical research literature of the time, and that 2) due to the physical chemistry of the distillation process, the thujone content of vintage Absinthe was considerably lower than previously estimated and corresponds to levels generally recognized as safe, as proven by analyses of Absinthes from the pre-ban era. Due to the re-legalization of Absinthe in the European Union and more recently in the United States, potential public health concerns have re-emerged, not expressly based on worries about thujone content or absinthism, but on alcohol-related harm and youth protection issues, exacerbated by marketing strategies promoting Absinthe using false and discredited claims pertaining to thujone and stubbornly persistant myths

  • Estimation of thujone levels in pre-ban Absinthe
    , 2015
    Co-Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    Abstract:

    Objectives: The media coverage about Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Ar-temisia absinthium L.), continues to repeat unsubstantiated myths and legends and the public is systematically misinformed. Especially, the theory about a significant thujone content in Absinthe must be put into perspective as there are a number of different wormwood chemotypes with a large variance in thujone content (0-70.6 % in essential oil). However, a relatively high thujone amount of 260 mg/l derived from out-of-date calculations is generally presented as “historical content ” in addition with reports about unsubstantiated psychoactive or aphrodisiac properties. With the end of Absinthe’s prohibition and rising public interest in the product, the misinformation in scientific studies was transferred to the popular press. The 260 mg/l is presented as common knowledge, and it is given as fact that the thujone content in the mid-nineteenth century was sig-nificantly greater than it is today. Methods: The thujone concentrations in pre-ban Absinthe were calculated using authentic 19th century French recipes under regard of the composition of wormwood oil derived by a litera-ture review. Results: A typical Absinthe Suisse de Pontarlier was calculated to have contained 23±21 mg/l of thujone. It was, therefore, proven that the previous calculations overestimated the thujone content. Discussion: The following point about the thujone content of pre-ban Absinthe should be stressed: there are no analyses from the 19th century because neither knowledge about thujone nor the required analytical methodologies were in existence. Therefore, so-called “historical thujone contents ” are either speculative or derived from calculations using historic recipe books, experi-mental production of Absinthes using such recipes, or analyses of vintage Absinthes. The most conclusive evidence is provided by a number of studies about the experimental production of Absinthes, and the analyses of vintage Absinthes, which consistently showed that they contained only relatively low concentrations of thujone (< 10 mg/l). 1

  • rapid determination of total thujone in Absinthe using 1h nmr spectroscopy
    International Journal of Spectroscopy, 2011
    Co-Authors: Yulia B. Monakhova, Thomas Kuballa, Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    Abstract:

    1H NMR spectroscopy is utilized to quantify total thujone (sum of – and -isomers) in Absinthe. For sample preparation, a simple dilution with buffer is required. Thujone produces a distinct peak of the CH2 group in the cyclopentanone moiety in the 2.13–2.11 ppm range. No overlap with other typical constituents such as anethole or fenchone occurs. The detection limit of 0.3 mg/L is adequate to control the EU maximum limit. The relative standard deviation was 6%, and linearity was observed from 1 to 100 mg/L. Applicability was proven by analysis of 69 authentic Absinthes. The correlation between NMR and our previous method consisting of liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS was significant (). The simple and cheap NMR method can be used for rapid screening of Absinthes for total thujone content while chromatographic techniques are recommended for more specific (- and -thujone isomers) analysis if required.

Thomas Kuballa – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • rapid determination of total thujone in Absinthe using 1h nmr spectroscopy
    International Journal of Spectroscopy, 2011
    Co-Authors: Yulia B. Monakhova, Thomas Kuballa, Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    Abstract:

    1H NMR spectroscopy is utilized to quantify total thujone (sum of – and -isomers) in Absinthe. For sample preparation, a simple dilution with buffer is required. Thujone produces a distinct peak of the CH2 group in the cyclopentanone moiety in the 2.13–2.11 ppm range. No overlap with other typical constituents such as anethole or fenchone occurs. The detection limit of 0.3 mg/L is adequate to control the EU maximum limit. The relative standard deviation was 6%, and linearity was observed from 1 to 100 mg/L. Applicability was proven by analysis of 69 authentic Absinthes. The correlation between NMR and our previous method consisting of liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS was significant (). The simple and cheap NMR method can be used for rapid screening of Absinthes for total thujone content while chromatographic techniques are recommended for more specific (- and -thujone isomers) analysis if required.

  • Rapid Determination of Total Thujone in Absinthe Using 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    Hindawi Limited, 2011
    Co-Authors: Yulia B. Monakhova, Thomas Kuballa, Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    Abstract:

    1H NMR spectroscopy is utilized to quantify total thujone (sum of α- and β-isomers) in Absinthe. For sample preparation, a simple dilution with buffer is required. Thujone produces a distinct peak of the CH2 group in the cyclopentanone moiety in the 2.13–2.11 ppm range. No overlap with other typical constituents such as anethole or fenchone occurs. The detection limit of 0.3 mg/L is adequate to control the EU maximum limit. The relative standard deviation was 6%, and linearity was observed from 1 to 100 mg/L. Applicability was proven by analysis of 69 authentic Absinthes. The correlation between NMR and our previous method consisting of liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS was significant (P

  • long term stability of thujone fenchone and pinocamphone in vintage preban Absinthe
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009
    Co-Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Theodore A. Breaux, David Nathanmaister, Thomas Kuballa

    Abstract:

    Research was conducted to ascertain whether analyses of vintage Absinthe samples represent their original composition in the early 1900s. Absinthe stored in traditional green glass bottles and irradiated with ultraviolet light for up to 200 h exhibited unchanged composition. Samples stored in clear glass exhibited an 18% reduction in β-thujone content and a concurrent decoloration. These experiments indicate the stability of thujone in vintage Absinthes, as these were stored in green glass bottles. The preserved color of the preban Absinthes subjected to analysis indicates that no significant light exposure occurred throughout the duration of storage, and therefore provides indirect proof that no loss of terpenes occurred. The stability of Absinthe was further demonstrated through the reanalysis of samples from 2001−2005, which exhibited no changes in thujone content as of 2008. A previous evaluation of preban Absinthe was therefore valid and not confounded by significant thujone deterioration over time.

Theodore A. Breaux – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Open Access Absinthe, Absinthism and Thujone – New Insight into the Spirit's Impact on Public Health
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier, David Nathan-maister, Theodore A. Breaux, J P Luaute, Joachim Emmert

    Abstract:

    Abstract: Absinthe, a strong alcoholic aperitif, is notorious for containing the compound ‘thujone’, which has been commonly regarded as its ‘active ingredient’. It has been widely theorized that the thujone content of vintage Absinthe made it harmful to public health, and caused the distinct syndrome absinthism, which was extensively described in the literature prior to the spirit’s ban in 1915. The interdisciplinary research presented in this paper shows that 1) absinthism cannot be distinguished from common alcoholism in the medical research literature of the time, and that 2) due to the physical chemistry of the distillation process, the thujone content of vintage Absinthe was considerably lower than previously estimated and corresponds to levels generally recognized as safe, as proven by analyses of Absinthes from the pre-ban era. Due to the re-legalization of Absinthe in the European Union and more recently in the United States, potential public health concerns have re-emerged, not expressly based on worries about thujone content or absinthism, but on alcohol-related harm and youth protection issues, exacerbated by marketing strategies promoting Absinthe using false and discredited claims pertaining to thujone and stubbornly persistant myths

  • Absinthe, Absinthism and Thujone – New Insight into the Spirit’s Impact on Public Health
    The Open Addiction Journal, 2010
    Co-Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier, David Nathan-maister, Theodore A. Breaux, J P Luaute, Joachim Emmert

    Abstract:

    Absinthe, a strong alcoholic aperitif, is notorious for containing the compound ‘thujone’, which has been commonly regarded as its ‘active ingredient’. It has been widely theorized that the thujone content of vintage Absinthe made it harmful to public health, and caused the distinct syndrome absinthism, which was extensively described in the literature prior to the spirit’s ban in 1915. The interdisciplinary research presented in this paper shows that 1) absinthism cannot be distinguished from common alcoholism in the medical research literature of the time, and that 2) due to the physical chemistry of the distillation process, the thujone content of vintage Absinthe was considerably lower than previously estimated and corresponds to levels generally recognized as safe, as proven by analyses of Absinthes from the pre-ban era. Due to the re-legalization of Absinthe in the European Union and more recently in the United States, potential public health concerns have re-emerged, not expressly based on worries about thujone content or absinthism, but on alcohol-related harm and youth protection issues, exacerbated by marketing strategies promoting Absinthe using false and discredited claims pertaining to thujone and stubbornly persistant myths.

  • long term stability of thujone fenchone and pinocamphone in vintage preban Absinthe
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009
    Co-Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Theodore A. Breaux, David Nathanmaister, Thomas Kuballa

    Abstract:

    Research was conducted to ascertain whether analyses of vintage Absinthe samples represent their original composition in the early 1900s. Absinthe stored in traditional green glass bottles and irradiated with ultraviolet light for up to 200 h exhibited unchanged composition. Samples stored in clear glass exhibited an 18% reduction in β-thujone content and a concurrent decoloration. These experiments indicate the stability of thujone in vintage Absinthes, as these were stored in green glass bottles. The preserved color of the preban Absinthes subjected to analysis indicates that no significant light exposure occurred throughout the duration of storage, and therefore provides indirect proof that no loss of terpenes occurred. The stability of Absinthe was further demonstrated through the reanalysis of samples from 2001−2005, which exhibited no changes in thujone content as of 2008. A previous evaluation of preban Absinthe was therefore valid and not confounded by significant thujone deterioration over time.