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Academies of Science

The Experts below are selected from a list of 84 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Nancy A Rigotti – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • balancing the benefits and harms of e cigarettes a national Academies of Science engineering and medicine report
    Annals of Internal Medicine, 2018
    Co-Authors: Nancy A Rigotti

    Abstract:

    E-cigarettes have the potential for benefit if they help smokers quit, but this must be balanced against potential harm. This commentary discusses the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, a…

David A Leon – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • long term trends in the longevity of scientific elites evidence from the british and the russian Academies of Science
    Population Studies-a Journal of Demography, 2011
    Co-Authors: Evgeny Andreev, Dmitri A Jdanov, Vladimir M Shkolnikov, David A Leon

    Abstract:

    National Science Academies represent intellectual elites and vanguard groups in the achievement of longevity. We estimated life expectancy (LE) at age 50 of members of the British Royal Society (RS) for the years 1670–2007 and of members of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for the years 1750–2006. The longevity of academicians was higher than that of their corresponding national populations, with the gap widening from the 1950s. Since the 1980s, LE in the RS has been higher than the maximum LE among all high-income countries. In each period, LE in the RS was greater than in the RAS, although since the 1950s it has risen in parallel in the two Academies. This steep increase shared by academicians in Britain and Russia suggests that general populations have the potential for a substantial increase in survival to high ages.

L M Branscomb – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • MAKING THE NATION SAFER: THE ROLE of Science AND TECHNOLOGY IN COUNTERING TERRORISM – A REPORT of THE U.S. NATIONAL Academies. IN: TERRORISM. REDUCING VULNERABILITIES AND IMPROVING RESPONSES. U.S.-RUSSIAN WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS.
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: L M Branscomb

    Abstract:

    This chapter presents a report of the United States National Academies on the role of Science and technology in countering terrorism; the author has updated the information in the original report for this publication. The chapter is from a book that gathers papers and proceedings from workshops held between 2001 and 2003 of meetings of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the National Academies of Science (NAS, United States), focusing on reducing vulnerabilities and improving responses to terrorism. The author explores the importance of evaluating the nature of the threat, determining the vulnerabilities of targets in civil society, and establishing the availability of technical solutions to the vulnerabilities that are most likely to be exploited by terrorists. The author outlines the terrorists’ advantages, the advantages of industrial societies threatened by terrorists, the U.S. government structure and Department of Homeland Security, categories of public policy approaches to countering terrorism, targets of and weapons for terrorist attacks, ecological economics (how commercial efficiency creates vulnerabilities), who pays for the hardening of critical infrastructure, and dual-use strategies for hardening industry. The chapter concludes with examples of the Academies‘ recommendations for dealing with a variety of threats, including nuclear and radiological threats, biological threats to people and their food supply, toxic chemicals, explosives, and flammable materials, energy systems, communications and information systems, transportation and borders, cities and fixed infrastructure, and the response of people to terrorist threats.