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Accessory Basal Nucleus

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Asla Pitkanen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Projections from the amygdaloid complex to the claustrum and the endopiriform Nucleus: a Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin study in the rat.
    The Journal of comparative neurology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Katarzyna Majak, Esa Jolkkonen, Maria Pikkarainen, Samuli Kemppainen, Asla Pitkanen
    Abstract:

    The claustrum and the endopiriform Nucleus contribute to the spread of epileptiform activity from the amygdala to other brain areas. Data of the distribution of pathways underlying the information flow between these regions are, however, incomplete and controversial. To investigate the projections from the amygdala to the claustrum and the endopiriform Nucleus, we injected the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into various divisions of the amygdaloid complex, including the lateral, Basal, Accessory Basal, central, anterior cortical and posterior cortical nuclei, the periamygdaloid cortex, and the amygdalohippocampal area in the rat. Analysis of immunohistochemically processed sections reveal that the heaviest projections to the claustrum originate in the magnocellular division of the Basal Nucleus. The projection is moderate in density and mainly terminates in the dorsal aspect of the anterior part of the claustrum. Light projections from the parvicellular and intermediate divisions of the Basal Nucleus terminate in the same region, whereas light projections from the Accessory Basal Nucleus and the lateral division of the amygdalohippocampal area innervate the caudal part of the claustrum. The most substantial projections from the amygdala to the endopiriform Nucleus originate in the lateral division of the amygdalohippocampal area. These projections terminate in the central and caudal parts of the endopiriform Nucleus. Lighter projections originate in the anterior and posterior cortical nuclei, the periamygdaloid cortex, the medial division of the amygdalohippocampal area, and the Accessory Basal Nucleus. These data provide an anatomic basis for recent functional studies demonstrating that the claustrum and the endopiriform Nucleus are strategically located to synchronize and spread epileptiform activity from the amygdala to the other brain regions. These topographically organized pathways also provide a route by means of which the claustrum and the endopiriform Nucleus have access to inputs from the amygdaloid networks that process emotionally significant information.

  • Projections from the lateral, Basal, and Accessory Basal nuclei of the amygdala to the entorhinal cortex in the macaque monkey.
    Hippocampus, 2002
    Co-Authors: Asla Pitkanen, Jennifer L. Kelly, David G. Amaral
    Abstract:

    We used the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to examine the projections from the lateral, Basal, and Accessory Basal nuclei of the amygdaloid complex to the entorhinal cortex in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. The heaviest amygdaloid projections originate in the lateral Nucleus, which innervates the rostrally situated entorhinal fields but does not project to the caudal entorhinal cortex. The most extensive projections originate in the ventral division of the lateral Nucleus. Injections in this subdivision lead to moderate to heavy fiber and terminal labeling in the entorhinal cortex, rostral levels of the rostral intermediate EI (ER) and lateral fields, (ELr), and light labeling in the olfactory field EO. The projections from all portions of the lateral Nucleus terminate most heavily in layer III. Layer II of EO and ER also receives a substantial input from the ventral division of the lateral Nucleus. Layer II of ELr receives light innervation from all portions of the lateral Nucleus that project to layer III. Projections from the Basal Nucleus arise mainly from the parvicellular division and are light to moderate in density. Fibers terminate predominantly in ELr, ER, EO, and the caudal portion of the lateral field (Elc); only the most rostral portion of EI receives projections. While fibers from the Basal Nucleus innervate the same layers as the projections from the lateral Nucleus, they tend to have a more vertical or radial orientation within the entorhinal cortex. Electron microscopic analysis of these fibers and terminals indicates that they overwhelmingly form asymmetrical synapses onto dendrites and dendritic spines. The Accessory Basal Nucleus provides a light projection to the same regions of the entorhinal cortex innervated by the lateral and Basal nuclei. Hippocampus 2002;12:186–205. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • Projections from the Lateral, Basal and Accessory Basal Nuclei of the Amygdala to the Perirhinal and Postrhinal Cortices in Rat
    Cerebral cortex (New York N.Y. : 1991), 2001
    Co-Authors: Maria Pikkarainen, Asla Pitkanen
    Abstract:

    The projections from the amygdaloid complex to the hippocampus and surrounding cortex have a critical role in the formation of memories for emotionally arousing stimuli and in the spread of epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the organization of amygdaloid projections to the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices by injecting the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into the different subdivisions of the lateral, Basal or Accessory Basal nuclei of the amygdala in rat (n = 53). Analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections indicated that the medial and dorsolateral divisions of the lateral Nucleus project heavily to layers I-V of caudal area 35 and to layers I-III of the rostroventral postrhinal cortex. The dorsolateral division also moderately innervates layer I of caudoventral area 36. The magnocellular division of the Basal Nucleus projects moderately to layers V and VI of rostral areas 35 and 36. The parvicellular division of the Accessory Basal Nucleus projects moderately to layer V of caudal area 35, whereas the magnocellular division projects moderately to layers I and II of rostral area 35. Via these substantial, topographically organized projections, the amygdaloid complex might modulate information processing at different levels of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

David G. Amaral – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Delineations of the amygdala subregions examined.
    , 2014
    Co-Authors: John T. Morgan, David G. Amaral, Nicole Barger, Cynthia M. Schumann
    Abstract:

    A. Delineation outlined on a Nissl stained section and B. transferred onto an Iba1- and H & E- stained section and aligned using morphological features, fiber tracts, and cytoarchitectonic boundaries. AB: Accessory Basal Nucleus, B: Basal Nucleus, C: central Nucleus, L: lateral Nucleus, O: “other nuclei”, a subregion comprising the remaining amygdaloid nuclei, including the anterior cortical Nucleus, anterior amygdaloid area, Nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, periamygdaloid cortex, medial Nucleus, posterior cortical Nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area, and intercalated nuclei. Scale bar: 2 mm.

  • Stereological Analysis of Amygdala Neuron Number in Autism
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 2006
    Co-Authors: Cynthia M. Schumann, David G. Amaral
    Abstract:

    The amygdala is one of several brain regions suspected to be pathological in autism. Previously, we found that young children with autism have a larger amygdala than typically developing children. Past qualitative observations of the autistic brain suggest increased cell density in some nuclei of the postmortem autistic amygdala. In this first, quantitative stereological study of the autistic brain, we counted and measured neurons in several amygdala subdivisions of 9 autism male brains and 10 age-matched male control brains. Cases with comorbid seizure disorder were excluded from the study. The amygdaloid complex was outlined on coronal sections then partitioned into five reliably defined subdivisions: (1) lateral Nucleus, (2) Basal Nucleus, (3) Accessory Basal Nucleus, (4) central Nucleus, and (5) remaining nuclei. There is no difference in overall volume of the amygdala or in individual subdivisions. There are also no changes in cell size. However, there are significantly fewer neurons in the autistic amygdala overall and in its lateral Nucleus. In conjunction with the findings from previous magnetic resonance imaging studies, the autistic amygdala appears to undergo an abnormal pattern of postnatal development that includes early enlargement and ultimately a reduced number of neurons. It will be important to determine in future studies whether neuron loss in the amygdala is a consistent characteristic of autism and whether cell loss occurs in other brain regions as well.

  • Projections from the lateral, Basal, and Accessory Basal nuclei of the amygdala to the entorhinal cortex in the macaque monkey.
    Hippocampus, 2002
    Co-Authors: Asla Pitkanen, Jennifer L. Kelly, David G. Amaral
    Abstract:

    We used the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to examine the projections from the lateral, Basal, and Accessory Basal nuclei of the amygdaloid complex to the entorhinal cortex in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. The heaviest amygdaloid projections originate in the lateral Nucleus, which innervates the rostrally situated entorhinal fields but does not project to the caudal entorhinal cortex. The most extensive projections originate in the ventral division of the lateral Nucleus. Injections in this subdivision lead to moderate to heavy fiber and terminal labeling in the entorhinal cortex, rostral levels of the rostral intermediate EI (ER) and lateral fields, (ELr), and light labeling in the olfactory field EO. The projections from all portions of the lateral Nucleus terminate most heavily in layer III. Layer II of EO and ER also receives a substantial input from the ventral division of the lateral Nucleus. Layer II of ELr receives light innervation from all portions of the lateral Nucleus that project to layer III. Projections from the Basal Nucleus arise mainly from the parvicellular division and are light to moderate in density. Fibers terminate predominantly in ELr, ER, EO, and the caudal portion of the lateral field (Elc); only the most rostral portion of EI receives projections. While fibers from the Basal Nucleus innervate the same layers as the projections from the lateral Nucleus, they tend to have a more vertical or radial orientation within the entorhinal cortex. Electron microscopic analysis of these fibers and terminals indicates that they overwhelmingly form asymmetrical synapses onto dendrites and dendritic spines. The Accessory Basal Nucleus provides a light projection to the same regions of the entorhinal cortex innervated by the lateral and Basal nuclei. Hippocampus 2002;12:186–205. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Julie L. Fudge – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Translating Fear Circuitry: Amygdala Projections to Subgenual and Perigenual Anterior Cingulate in the Macaque.
    Cerebral cortex (New York N.Y. : 1991), 2019
    Co-Authors: K K Sharma, Emily A. Kelly, C W Pfeifer, Julie L. Fudge
    Abstract:

    Rodent fear-learning models posit that amygdala-infralimbic connections facilitate extinction while amygdala-prelimbic prefrontal connections mediate fear expression. Analogous amygdala-prefrontal circuitry between rodents and primates is not established. Using paired small volumes of neural tracers injected into the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC; areas 24b and 32; a potential homologue to rodent prelimbic cortex) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, areas 25 and 14c; a potential homologue to rodent infralimbic cortex) in a single hemisphere, we mapped amygdala projections to the pgACC and sgACC within single subjects. All injections resulted in dense retrograde labeling specifically within the intermediate division of the Basal Nucleus (Bi) and the magnocellular division of the Accessory Basal Nucleus (ABmc). Areal analysis revealed a bias for connectivity with the sgACC, with the ABmc showing a greater bias than the Bi. Double fluorescence analysis revealed that sgACC and pgACC projections were intermingled within the Bi and ABmc, where a proportion were double labeled. We conclude that amygdala inputs to the ACC largely originate from the Bi and ABmc, preferentially connect to the sgACC, and that a subset collaterally project to both sgACC and pgACC. These findings advance our understanding of fear extinction and fear expression circuitry across species.

  • Amygdala projections to central amygdaloid Nucleus subdivisions and transition zones in the primate.
    Neuroscience, 2009
    Co-Authors: Julie L. Fudge, Tracy Tucker
    Abstract:

    In rats and primates, the central Nucleus of the amygdala (CeN) is most known for its role in responses to fear stimuli. Recent evidence also shows that the CeN is required for directing attention and behaviors when the salience of competing stimuli is in flux. To examine how information flows through this key output region of the primate amygdala, we first placed small injections of retrograde tracers into the subdivisions of the central Nucleus in Old world primates, and examined inputs from specific amygdaloid nuclei. The amygdalostriatal area and interstitial Nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) were distinguished from the CeN using histochemical markers, and projections to these regions were also described. As expected, the Basal Nucleus and Accessory Basal Nucleus are the main afferent connections of the central Nucleus and transition zones. The medial subdivision of the central Nucleus (CeM) receives a significantly stronger input from all regions compared to the lateral core subdivision (CeLcn). The corticoamygdaloid transition zone (a zone of confluence of the medial parvicellular Basal Nucleus, paralaminar Nucleus, and the sulcal periamygdaloid cortex) provides the main input to the CeLcn. The IPAC and amygdalostriatal area can be divided in medial and lateral subregions, and receive input from the Basal and Accessory Basal Nucleus, with differential inputs according to subdivision. The piriform cortex and lateral Nucleus, two important sensory interfaces, send projections to the transition zones. In sum, the CeM receives broad inputs from the entire amygdala, whereas the CeLcn receives more restricted inputs from the relatively undifferentiated corticoamygdaloid transition region. Like the CeN, the transition zones receive most of their input from the Basal Nucleus and Accessory Basal Nucleus, however, inputs from the piriform cortex and lateral Nucleus, and a lack of input from the parvicellular Accessory Basal Nucleus, are distinguishing afferent features.

  • Amygdaloid Inputs Define a Caudal Component of the Ventral Striatum in Primates
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Julie L. Fudge, Michael A. Breitbart, Crystal R. Mcclain
    Abstract:

    The ventral striatum mediates goal-directed behavior through limbic afferents. One well-established afferent to the ventral striatum is the amygdaloid complex, which projects throughout the shell and core of the Nucleus accumbens, the rostral ventromedial caudate Nucleus, and rostral ventromedial putamen. However, striatal regions caudal to the anterior commissure also receive inputs from the amygdala. These caudal areas contain histochemical and cytoarchitectural features that resemble the shell and core, based on our recent studies. Specifically, there is a calcium binding protein (CaBP)-poor region in the lateral amygdalostriatal area that resembles the “shell.” To examine the idea that the caudal ventral striatum is part of the “classic” ventral striatum, we placed small injections of retrograde tracers throughout the caudal ventral striatum/amygdalostriatal area and charted the distribution of specific amygdaloid inputs. Amygdaloid inputs to the CaBP-poor zone in the lateral amygdalostriatal area arise from the Basal Nucleus, the magnocellular subdivision of the Accessory Basal Nucleus, the periamygdaloid cortex, and the medial subdivision of the central Nucleus, resembling that of the shell of the ventral striatum found in our previous studies. There are also amygdaloid inputs to CaBP-positive areas outside the shell, which originate mainly in the Basal Nucleus. Taken together, the “limbic-related” striatum forms a continuum from the rostral ventral striatum through the caudal ventral striatum/lateral amygdalostriatal area based on histochemical and cellular similarities, as well as inputs from the amygdala.