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Activation Process

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Tadatomo Suga – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effect of surface Activation Process for the GaAs device properties
    2017 International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP), 2017
    Co-Authors: Masahisa Fujino, Nobuto Managaki, Hiroshi Yamada, Tadatomo Suga
    Abstract:

    Surface activated bonding (SAB) is one of the significant tool for 3D integration. However, the SAB induces not only room temperature bonding interfaces, also the interface irradiation damages by the Activation Process. In this research, we evaluated the electrical properties and the interface structure of the GaAs interface bonded by SAB. The field effect transistor (FET) constructed by GaAs was analyzed before/after irradiation Process. As result, the short time irradiation Process reached less degradation of its signal amplifier property, and the large dose affected its performance. Moreover, the interface of GaAs/GaAs bonded specimen by SAB consisted of about 2nm-thick defect layer.

  • low temperature direct bonding of glass nanofluidic chips using a two step plasma surface Activation Process
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2012
    Co-Authors: Tadatomo Suga, Yan Xu, Chenxi Wang, Yiyang Dong, Lixiao Li, Kihoon Jang, Kazuma Mawatari, Takehiko Kitamori
    Abstract:

    Owing to the well-established nanochannel fabrication technology in 2D nanoscales with high resolution, reproducibility, and flexibility, glass is the leading, ideal, and unsubstitutable material for the fabrication of nanofluidic chips. However, high temperature (~1,000 °C) and a vacuum condition are usually required in the conventional fusion bonding Process, unfortunately impeding the nanofluidic applications and even the development of the whole field of nanofluidics. We present a direct bonding of fused silisilica glass nanofluidic chips at low temperature, around 200 °C in ambient air, through a two-step plasma surface Activation Process which consists of an O2 reactive ion etching plasma treatment followed by a nitrogen microwave radical Activation. The low-temperature bonded glass nanofluidic chips not only had high bonding strength but also could work continuously without leakage during liquid introduction driven by air pressure even at 450 kPa, a very high pressure which can meet the requirements of most nanofluidic operations. Owing to the mild conditions required in the bonding Process, the method has the potential to allow the integration of a range of functional elements into nanofluidic chips during manufacture, which is nearly impossible in the conventional high-temperature fusion bonding Process. Therefore, we believe that the developed low-temperature bonding would be very useful and contribute to the field of nanofluidics.

  • Room-temperature microfluidics packaging using sequential plasma Activation Process
    IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, 2006
    Co-Authors: Matiar M. R. Howlader, Satoru Suehara, H. Takagi, R. Maeda, Tadatomo Suga
    Abstract:

    A sequential plasma Activation Process consisting of oxygen reactive ion etching (RIE) plasma and nitrogen radical plasma was applied for microfluidics packaging at room temperature. Si/glass and glass/glass wafers were activated by the oxygen RIE plasma followed by nitrogen microwave radicals. Then, the activated wafers were brought into contact in atmospheric pressure air with hand-applied pressure where they remained for 24 h. The wafers were bonded throughout the entire area and the bonding strength of the interface was as strong as the parents bulk wafers without any post-annealing Process or wet chemical cleaning steps. Bonding strength considerably increased with the nitrogen radical treatment after oxygen RIE Activation prior to bonding. Chemical reliability tests showed that the bonded interfaces of Si/Si could significantly withstand exposure to various microfluidics chemicals. Si/glass and glass/glass cavities formed by the sequential plasma Activation Process indicated hermetic sealing behavior. SiOx Ny was observed in the sequentially plasma-treated glass wafer, and it is attributed to binding of nitrogen with Si and oxygen and the implantation of N2 radical in the wafer. High bonding strength observed is attributed to a diffusion of absorbing water onto the wafer surfaces and a reaction between silicon oxynitride layers on the mating wafers. T-shape microfluidic channels were fabricated on glass wafers by bulk micromachining and the sequential plasma-activated bonding Process at room temperature

Hamid Ebrahimi Rahnoma – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Investigation of the effect of Al–5Ti–1B grain refiner on dry sliding wear behavior of an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy formed by strain-induced melt Activation Process
    Materials & Design, 2013
    Co-Authors: Baharak Ghorbanian Aghdam, Hamid Ebrahimi Rahnoma
    Abstract:

    Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of Al–5Ti–1B master alloy and modified strain-induced melt Activation Process on the structural characteristics, mechanical properties and dry sliding wear behavior of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy. The optimum amount of Ti containing master alloy for proper grain refining was selected as 2 wt.%. The alloy was produced by modified strain-induced melt Activation (SIMA) Process. Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. The optimum temperature and time in strain-induced melt Activation Process are 575 °C and 20 min, respectively. T6 heat treatment was applied for all specimens before tensile testing. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the T6 heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 283 MPa to 587 MPa and 252 MPa to 564 MPa for samples refined with 2 wt.% Al–5Ti–1B before and after strain-induced melt Activation Process, respectively. Dry sliding wear performance of the alloy was examined in normal atmospheric conditions. The experimental results showed that the T6 heat treatment considerably improved the resistance of Al–12Zn–3Mg–2.5Cu aluminum alloy to the dry sliding wear. The results showed that ultimate strength and dry sliding wear performance of globular microstructure specimens was a lower value than that of Ti-refined specimens without strain-induced melt Activation Process.

Nikola Buric – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Activation Process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources one and two interacting units
    Physical Review E, 2015
    Co-Authors: Igor Franovic, Kristina Todorovic, Matjaž Perc, Nebojsa Vasovic, Nikola Buric
    Abstract:

    : We consider the coaction of two distinct noise sources on the Activation Process of a single excitable unit and two interacting excitable units, which are mathematically described by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations. We determine the most probable Activation paths around which the corresponding stochastic trajectories are clustered. The key point lies in introducing appropriate boundary conditions that are relevant for a class II excitable unit, which can be immediately generalized also to scenarios involving two coupled units. We analyze the effects of the two noise sources on the statistical features of the Activation Process, in particular demonstrating how these are modified due to the linear or nonlinear form of interactions. Universal properties of the Activation Process are qualitatively discussed in the light of a stochastic bifurcation that underlies the transition from a stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations.

  • Activation Process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources large number of units
    Physical Review E, 2015
    Co-Authors: Igor Franovic, Kristina Todorovic, Matjaž Perc, Srdjan Kostic, Nikola Buric
    Abstract:

    We study the Activation Process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly Activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly Activation Process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local Activation Processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse.

Valéria Perfeito Vicentini – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • An investigation of the Activation Process of high temperature shift catalyst
    Catalysis Today, 2008
    Co-Authors: Morgana Scariot, Maria Suzana P. Francisco, Maura H. Jordão, Daniela Zanchet, Marco A. Logli, Valéria Perfeito Vicentini
    Abstract:

    Abstract The aim of this work is to address the Activation Process of a high temperature shift (HTS) catalyst, composed of Fe 2 O 3 /Cr 2 O 3 /CuO, by analyzing it before Activation (HTS-V) and after Activation (HTS-A) using complementary characterization techniques. The textural and morphological characterizations were done by transmission elecelectron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen physisorption at 77 K; crystallographic structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD); electronic structure was analyzed by X-ray absoabsorption specspectroscopy (XAS) and the chemical composition of the catalyst’s surface was obtained by X-ray photoelectron specspectroscopy (XPS). The investigation pointed out that the HTS-V catalyst presents good textural and morphological properties, which are not deeply affected by the Activation Process (sample HTS-A). The iron oxide phase in the HTS-V catalyst is hematite whereas in HTS-A catalyst is magnetite with Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio close to the expected value (0.5). For both samples, the Cr ions seem to be incorporated in the iron oxide lattice with higher concentration at particle surface. In the HTS-V catalyst, the Cu ions have oxidation number II and occupy in average distorted octahedral sites; after the Activation, the Cu ions are partially reduced, suggesting that the reduction of the Cu species is complex.

  • An investigation of the Activation Process of high temperature shift catalyst
    Catalysis Today, 2008
    Co-Authors: Morgana Scariot, Maria Suzana P. Francisco, Maura H. Jordão, Daniela Zanchet, Marco A. Logli, Valéria Perfeito Vicentini
    Abstract:

    The aim of this work is to address the Activation Process of a high temperature shift (HTS) catalyst, composed of Fe2O3/Cr2O3/CuO, by analyzing it before Activation (HTS-V) and after Activation (HTS-A) using complementary characterization techniques. The textural and morphological characterizations were done by transmission electron rnicroscopy (TEM) and nitrogen physisorption at 77 K; crystallographic structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD); electronic structure was analyzed by X-ray absoabsorption specspectroscopy (XAS) and the chemical composition of the catalyst`s surface was obtained by X-ray photoelectron specspectroscopy (XPS). The investigation pointed out that the HTS-V catalyst presents good textural and morphological properties, which are not deeply affected by the Activation Process (sample HTS-A). The iron oxide phase in the HTS-V catalyst is hematite whereas in HTS-A catalyst is magnetite with Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio close to the expected value (0.5). For both samples, the Cr ions seem to be incorporated in the iron oxide lattice with higher concentration at particle surface. In the HTS-V catalyst, the Cu ions have oxidation number II and occupy in average distorted octahedral sites; after the Activation, the Cu ions are partially reduced, suggesting that the reduction of the Cu species is complex. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Matjaž Perc – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Activation Process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources one and two interacting units
    Physical Review E, 2015
    Co-Authors: Igor Franovic, Kristina Todorovic, Matjaž Perc, Nebojsa Vasovic, Nikola Buric
    Abstract:

    : We consider the coaction of two distinct noise sources on the Activation Process of a single excitable unit and two interacting excitable units, which are mathematically described by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations. We determine the most probable Activation paths around which the corresponding stochastic trajectories are clustered. The key point lies in introducing appropriate boundary conditions that are relevant for a class II excitable unit, which can be immediately generalized also to scenarios involving two coupled units. We analyze the effects of the two noise sources on the statistical features of the Activation Process, in particular demonstrating how these are modified due to the linear or nonlinear form of interactions. Universal properties of the Activation Process are qualitatively discussed in the light of a stochastic bifurcation that underlies the transition from a stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations.

  • Activation Process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: Large number of units.
    Physical review. E Statistical nonlinear and soft matter physics, 2015
    Co-Authors: Igor Franović, Matjaž Perc, Srdjan Kostic, Kristina Todorović, Nikola Burić
    Abstract:

    We study the Activation Process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly Activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly Activation Process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local Activation Processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse.

  • Activation Process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources large number of units
    Physical Review E, 2015
    Co-Authors: Igor Franovic, Kristina Todorovic, Matjaž Perc, Srdjan Kostic, Nikola Buric
    Abstract:

    We study the Activation Process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly Activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly Activation Process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local Activation Processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse.