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Adrenal Gland

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Mai P. Hoang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine, 2003
    Co-Authors: Mario G. Lujan, Mai P. Hoang
    Abstract:

    Abstract Primary leiomyosarcomas arising in the Adrenal Gland are exceedingly rare, with only 3 cases reported in the literature. We present the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of a pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, a variant of leiomyosarcoma that has not been described in the Adrenal Gland. A 63-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of enlarging right upper quadrant mass and pulmonary nodule. A diagnosis of metastatic pulmonary carcinoma to the Adrenal Gland was rendered on a needle biopsy specimen. Preoperative chemotherapy reduced only the pulmonary mass but not the Adrenal mass, which continued to enlarge. Documented by computed tomography and confirmed at surgery, the tumor had completely replaced the right Adrenal Gland, invading into both the posterior aspect of the right liver and the superior pole of the right kidney. Histologic sections showed a diffuse proliferation of pleomorphic, large, and polygonal neoplastic cells with prominent nucleoli. Many bizarre mitotic figu…

  • Pleomorphic Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland
    Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 2003
    Co-Authors: Mario G. Lujan, Mai P. Hoang
    Abstract:

    Abstract Primary leiomyosarcomas arising in the Adrenal Gland are exceedingly rare, with only 3 cases reported in the literature. We present the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of a pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, a variant of leiomyosarcoma that has not been described in the Adrenal Gland. A 63-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of enlarging right upper quadrant mass and pulmonary nodule. A diagnosis of metastatic pulmonary carcinoma to the Adrenal Gland was rendered on a needle biopsy specimen. Preoperative chemotherapy reduced only the pulmonary mass but not the Adrenal mass, which continued to enlarge. Documented by computed tomography and confirmed at surgery, the tumor had completely replaced the right Adrenal Gland, invading into both the posterior aspect of the right liver and the superior pole of the right kidney. Histologic sections showed a diffuse proliferation of pleomorphic, large, and polygonal neoplastic cells with prominent nucleoli. Many bizarre mitotic figures were present. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for desmin, calponin, and vimentin. Approximately 80% of the neoplastic cells were positive for the proliferation marker Ki-67. They were negative for smooth muscle actiactin, muscle-specific actin, myoglobin, myogenin, CD117, cytokeratins, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antiantigen, chromogranin, CD34, CD31, S100 protein, and HMB-45.

Stefan R. Bornstein – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The Adrenal Gland microenvironment in health, disease and during regeneration
    Hormones, 2017
    Co-Authors: Waldemar Kanczkowski, Stefan R. Bornstein
    Abstract:

    The Adrenal Gland is a key component of the stress system in the human body. Multiple direct and paracrine interactions between different cell types and their progenitors take place within the Adrenal Gland microenvironment. These unique interactions are supported by high vascularization and the Adrenal cortex extracellular matrix. Alterations in the Adrenal Gland microenvironment are known to influence the progression of several pathological conditions, such as obesity and sepsis, and to be influenced by these disorders. For example, it has been suggested that activation of immune-Adrenal crosstalk during sepsis induces elevated Adrenal glucocorticoid levels, whereas crosstalk between adrenocortical cells and sonic hedgehog responsive stem cells was found to contribute to the increased size of the Adrenal cortex during obesity. By contrast to sepsis, where activation of Adrenal glucocorticoid production has protective effects, chronic exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids induces adverse effects, typically manifested in patients with Cushing syndrome, such as increased body weight, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and hypertension. Therefore, a better understanding of factors involved in the regulation of the Adrenal Gland microenvironment is crucial. This review highlights bidirectional interactions occurring between the Adrenal Gland microenvironment and systemic responses during obesity and sepsis. Furthermore, it presents and discusses recent advancements and challenges in attempts to restore or regenerate Adrenal Gland function, including the use of oxygenated immune-isolating devices.

  • Characterization of the LPS-induced inflammation of the Adrenal Gland in mice.
    Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Waldemar Kanczkowski, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Maryna Samus, Nguyen Tran, Kai Zacharowski, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Stefan R. Bornstein
    Abstract:

    Systemic administration of endotoxin, which closely mimics the bacteria-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can ultimately lead to organ failure. Adrenal Gland insufficiency is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we studied comprehensively the characteristics of Adrenal Gland dysregulation, including inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and cell death in the Adrenal Glands in the course of LPS-induced systemic inflammation in mice. LPS enhanced expression of many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, which resulted in rapid recruitment of leukocytes into the Adrenal Gland. Furthermore, LPS-mediated inflammation was associated with increased apoptosis of adrenocortical and chromaffin cells. Our results performed in mice, suggest that LPS-induced Adrenal Gland inflammation and cell death might be mechanisms potentially involved in the Adrenal Gland dysfunction in patients with sepsis.

  • tissue remodelling in the Adrenal Gland
    Biochemical Pharmacology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Gernot W Wolkersdorfer, Stefan R. Bornstein
    Abstract:

    Abstract Adaptation of the Adrenal Gland to the demands of the organism is regulated functionally and structurally. Three common hypotheses on zonation in the Adrenal Gland, the migrational, zonal, and transformation field theories, try independently to reconcile the findings on structure, proliferation, and cell death. The classical theories on zonation are revisited in the light of recent data on cell death and renewal. In accordance with data on cell death as immunoreactivity against FAS (CD 95), an apoptosis-inducing receptor, in situ end labelling of fragmented DNA, and ultrastructural analyses, programmed cell death (PCD) occurs throughout the whole organ. The angiotensin II receptor subtypes described in the Adrenal allow an additional regulation of tissue homehomeostasis by proliferative and even by the antiproliferative effects of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor. Proto-oncogenes are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and PCD, and adrenocorticotropin asserts its tissue integrating and differentiating effects by regulating proto-oncogenes such as c- jun , c- fos , jun – B and c- myc . Polypeptides involved in proliferation and DNA repair, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67, have been found within zones of expected cell senescence. The expression of the class II major histhistocompatibility complex on normal adrenocortical cells allows cell-to-cell communication with the immune system and may trigger the Fas/Fas-ligand system to permit tissue regression and decreasing activity in both systems. In summary, new data allow us to reappraise and to reconcile the classical theories. Apoptosis is a physiological process in the Adrenal Gland. There is a differential regulation of apoptosis in the different zones. An investigation of this process may elucidate the basic mechanisms of Adrenal zonation.

Mario G. Lujan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine, 2003
    Co-Authors: Mario G. Lujan, Mai P. Hoang
    Abstract:

    Abstract Primary leiomyosarcomas arising in the Adrenal Gland are exceedingly rare, with only 3 cases reported in the literature. We present the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of a pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, a variant of leiomyosarcoma that has not been described in the Adrenal Gland. A 63-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of enlarging right upper quadrant mass and pulmonary nodule. A diagnosis of metastatic pulmonary carcinoma to the Adrenal Gland was rendered on a needle biopsy specimen. Preoperative chemotherapy reduced only the pulmonary mass but not the Adrenal mass, which continued to enlarge. Documented by computed tomography and confirmed at surgery, the tumor had completely replaced the right Adrenal Gland, invading into both the posterior aspect of the right liver and the superior pole of the right kidney. Histologic sections showed a diffuse proliferation of pleomorphic, large, and polygonal neoplastic cells with prominent nucleoli. Many bizarre mitotic figu…

  • Pleomorphic Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland
    Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 2003
    Co-Authors: Mario G. Lujan, Mai P. Hoang
    Abstract:

    Abstract Primary leiomyosarcomas arising in the Adrenal Gland are exceedingly rare, with only 3 cases reported in the literature. We present the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of a pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, a variant of leiomyosarcoma that has not been described in the Adrenal Gland. A 63-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of enlarging right upper quadrant mass and pulmonary nodule. A diagnosis of metastatic pulmonary carcinoma to the Adrenal Gland was rendered on a needle biopsy specimen. Preoperative chemotherapy reduced only the pulmonary mass but not the Adrenal mass, which continued to enlarge. Documented by computed tomography and confirmed at surgery, the tumor had completely replaced the right Adrenal Gland, invading into both the posterior aspect of the right liver and the superior pole of the right kidney. Histologic sections showed a diffuse proliferation of pleomorphic, large, and polygonal neoplastic cells with prominent nucleoli. Many bizarre mitotic figures were present. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for desmin, calponin, and vimentin. Approximately 80% of the neoplastic cells were positive for the proliferation marker Ki-67. They were negative for smooth muscle actin, muscle-specific actin, myoglobin, myogenin, CD117, cytokeratins, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, chromogranin, CD34, CD31, S100 protein, and HMB-45.

Tsuyoshi Nogimori – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

J Gwynne – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • relationship between apolipoprotein e mrna expression and tissue cholesterol content in rat Adrenal Gland
    Journal of Lipid Research, 1991
    Co-Authors: Margaret M Prack, M Nicosia, David L Williams, J Gwynne
    Abstract:

    Among extrahepatic tissues the Adrenal Gland has one of the highest concentrations of apoE mRNA and the highest rate of apoE synthesis. In the present investigation several previously described in vivo treatments were used to assess the relationship between apoE expression and cellular cholesterol in the rat Adrenal Gland. Treatment of rats with 4-timinopyrazolo(3,4-djpyrimidine (4-APP) to lower serum cholesterol concentration and deplete Adrenal Gland cholesterol content decreased Adrenal Gland apoE mRNA Concentration. These Adrenal responses were blocked by dexamethasone (DEX) suggesting that the effect of 4-APP occurred indirectly via stim- ulation of the Adrenal Gland by endogenous adrenocortico- trophic (ACTH). Relative to control rats, DEX treatment increased both Adrenal Gland cholesterol content and apoE mRNA concentration. Concurrent ACTH and DEX adminis- tration reduced both Adrenal Gland cholesterol content and apoE mRNA concentration relative to DEX-treated rats. ACTH ad- ministration also rapidly decreased Adrenal Gland apoE mRNA concentration and cholesterol content in rats pretreated with DEX. In all the above experiments, Adrenal Gland cholesterol content and apoE mRNA concentration were positively cor- related (r = 0.78, P = 0.0001). In contrast, aminoglutethimide treatment, which blocks Adrenal Gland steroidogenesis and greatly increases Adrenal Gland cholesterol content, was without effect on apoE mRNA concentration. ACTH administration to rats treated with DEX + aminoglutethimide resulted in decreased Adrenal apoE mRNA despite greatly increased Adrenal cholesterol content. e This uncoupling of Adrenal Gland cholesterol content and apoE mRNA concentration sug- gests that apoE mRNA expression and cellular cholesterol are regulated independently by ACTH.-Prack, M. M., M. Nicosia, D. L. Williams, and J. Gwynne. Relationship between apo- lipoprotein E mRNA expression and tissue cholesterol content in rat Adrenal Gland. J Lipid Res. 1991. 32: 1611-1618.