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Adult Development

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Ursula M. Staudinger – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The positive plasticity of Adult Development: Potential for the 21st century.
    The American psychologist, 2020
    Co-Authors: Ursula M. Staudinger
    Abstract:

    We are living longer than ever before in human history. But longer lives are at the same time a gift and a challenge for individuals and society alike. Longer lives highlight an extraordinary feature of the human species and, that is, the capacity to intentionally or unintentionally positively modify their own Development and aging. This positive plasticity of human Development and aging is based on the fact that human aging is neither biologically nor contextually determined. Instead, Development and aging are the result of perpetual interactions between biological, sociocultural forces and a given person’s behaviors. Rethinking Adult Development implies that research needs to intensify its efforts to investigate and uncover the conditions and mechanisms facilitating the positive plasticity of Adult Development and aging. We need to accumulate scientific knowledge about which trajectories of constellations of sociocultural and physical context characteristics, a person’s behavioral patterns and genetic endowment are apt to optimize aging. Research examples from cognitive and personality functioning are presented to illustrate the positive plasticity of Adult Development as well as its limits. Cohort- and country-comparative long-term longitudinal data including physiological as well as behavioral measures besides sociodemographic information and information pertaining to the physical environment are needed to gain a deeper understanding of how to leverage the positive plasticity of human aging. Such evidence is then in a position to provide specific and therefore effective evidence to inform social policy as well as life(style) choices. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Jan D. Sinnott – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Introduction: Special Issue on Positive Psychology and Adult Development
    Journal of Adult Development, 2010
    Co-Authors: Jan D. Sinnott
    Abstract:

    The study of Positive Psychology brings a much needed emphasis to the study of the cognition, traits and contexts of behavior that are associated with optimal Development and flourishing during the entire course of life. It highlights the ways in which growth, hope, and resilience (to name just a few concepts) aid a person in dealing with the inevitable challenges of life, either in individual terms or via organizations that optimize chances for growth. The papers in this first Special Issue on Positive Psychology and Adult Development focus especially on wisdom, the workplace, and mental health issues.

  • Introduction: Special Issue on Spirituality and Adult Development, Part II
    Journal of Adult Development, 2002
    Co-Authors: Jan D. Sinnott
    Abstract:

    This article reviews the purpose of the 3-part Special Issue on Spirituality and Adult Development, described in the Introduction to Special Issue Part I (J. D. Sinnott, 2000). It also outlines the contents of Part II. Developing Adults express their belief that spirituality plays a key role in their Development, yet Developmental psychologists have given comparatively little attention to this factor. Also the concept of spirituality has seldom been considered separately from that of religion. The purpose of this special issue is to begin to remedy this neglect. This introduction is a summary of the 7 empirical and theoretical articles that form Part II of the Special Issue on Spirituality and Adult Development.

  • Introduction: Special Issue on Spirituality and Adult Development, Part II
    Journal of Adult Development, 2002
    Co-Authors: Jan D. Sinnott
    Abstract:

    This article describes the purpose of the 3-part Special Issue on Spirituality and Adult Development, and the contents of Part I. Developing individuals express their belief that spirituality plays a key role in their Development, yet Developmental psychologists have given comparatively little attention to this factor. The concept of spirituality is seldom considered separately from that of religion. The purpose of this Special Issue is to begin to remedy this neglect. This introduction is a summary of the 6 empirical and theoretical articles that form Part I.

V Sharma – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • correlated changes in life history traits in response to selection for faster pre Adult Development in the fruit fly drosophila melanogaster
    The Journal of Experimental Biology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Pankaj Yadav, V Sharma
    Abstract:

    Insects including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are under intense pressure to develop rapidly because they inhabit ephemeral habitats. We have previously shown that when selection for faster Development was artificially imposed on D. melanogaster in the laboratory, reduction of pre-Adult Development time and shortening of the clock period occurs, suggesting a role for circadian clocks in the regulation of life history traits. Circadian clocks in D. melanogaster have also been implicated in the control of metabolic pathways, ageing processes, oxidative stress and defense responses to exogenous stressors. In order to rigorously examine correlations between pre-Adult Development time and other life history traits, we assayed pre-Adult survivorship, starvation and desiccation resistance, body size and body weight, fecundity and Adult lifespan in faster developing populations of D. melanogaster. The results revealed that selection for faster pre-Adult Development significantly reduced several Adult fitness traits in the faster developing flies without affecting pre-Adult survivorship. Although overall fecundity of faster developing flies was reduced, their egg output per unit body weight was significantly higher than that of controls, indicating that reduction in Adult lifespan might be due to disproportionate investment in reproduction. Thus our results suggest that selection for faster pre-Adult Development in D. melanogaster yields flies with higher reproductive fitness. Because these flies also have shorter clock periods, our results can be taken to suggest that pre-Adult Development time and circadian clock period are correlated with various Adult life history traits in D. melanogaster, implying that circadian clocks may have adaptive significance.

Ruth Kanfer – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Work in the 21st century: New directions for aging and Adult Development.
    The American psychologist, 2020
    Co-Authors: Phillip L Ackerman, Ruth Kanfer
    Abstract:

    The changing nature of work is having a profound impact on the human experience, particularly among older workers. Two integrative theoretical and empirical frameworks of Adult Development over the past 3 decades provide new insights into aging and work in the 21st century. The first framework focuses on Adult intellect and the second on work motivation. We provide a brief review of these frameworks, discuss the implications for reconsidering Adult work lives in the context of interindividual differences, intraindividual change, and external forces, and argue for greater attention to individual differences in knowledge, skills, and motivation. Six broad themes, arising from the convergence of theory, research findings, and emerging patterns of work, are proposed as guides for forging new directions on the intellectual and motivational aspects of Adult Development in the world of 21st century work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

  • aging Adult Development and work motivation
    Academy of Management Review, 2004
    Co-Authors: Ruth Kanfer, Phillip L Ackerman
    Abstract:

    We describe a framework for understanding how age-related changes in Adult Development affect work motivation, and, building on recent life-span theories and research on cognitive abilities, personality, affect, vocational interests, values, and self-concept, identify four intraindividual change trajectories (loss, gain, reorganization, and exchange). We discuss implications of the integrative framework for the use and effectiveness of different motivational strategies with midlife and older workers in a variety of jobs, as well as abiding issues and future research directions.

Pankaj Yadav – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • correlated changes in life history traits in response to selection for faster pre Adult Development in the fruit fly drosophila melanogaster
    The Journal of Experimental Biology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Pankaj Yadav, V Sharma
    Abstract:

    Insects including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are under intense pressure to develop rapidly because they inhabit ephemeral habitats. We have previously shown that when selection for faster Development was artificially imposed on D. melanogaster in the laboratory, reduction of pre-Adult Development time and shortening of the clock period occurs, suggesting a role for circadian clocks in the regulation of life history traits. Circadian clocks in D. melanogaster have also been implicated in the control of metabolic pathways, ageing processes, oxidative stress and defense responses to exogenous stressors. In order to rigorously examine correlations between pre-Adult Development time and other life history traits, we assayed pre-Adult survivorship, starvation and desiccation resistance, body size and body weight, fecundity and Adult lifespan in faster developing populations of D. melanogaster. The results revealed that selection for faster pre-Adult Development significantly reduced several Adult fitness traits in the faster developing flies without affecting pre-Adult survivorship. Although overall fecundity of faster developing flies was reduced, their egg output per unit body weight was significantly higher than that of controls, indicating that reduction in Adult lifespan might be due to disproportionate investment in reproduction. Thus our results suggest that selection for faster pre-Adult Development in D. melanogaster yields flies with higher reproductive fitness. Because these flies also have shorter clock periods, our results can be taken to suggest that pre-Adult Development time and circadian clock period are correlated with various Adult life history traits in D. melanogaster, implying that circadian clocks may have adaptive significance.

  • Correlated changes in circadian clocks in response to selection for faster pre-Adult Development in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster
    Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 2013
    Co-Authors: Pankaj Yadav, Vijay Kumar Sharma
    Abstract:

    Although, circadian clocks are believed to be involved in the regulation of life-history traits such as pre-Adult Development time and lifespan in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster , there is very little unequivocal evidence either to support or refute this. Here we report the results of a long-term study aimed at examining the role of circadian clocks in the temporal regulation of pre-Adult Development in D. melanogaster . We employed laboratory selection protocol for faster pre-Adult Development on four large, outbred, random mating populations of Drosophila . We assayed pre-Adult Development time and circadian period of locomotor activity rhythm of these flies at regular intervals of 5–10 generations. After 50 generations of selection, the overall egg-to-Adult duration in the selected stocks was reduced by ~29 h (~12.5 %) relative to controls, with the selected populations showing a concurrent reduction in time taken to hatching, pupation and wing pigmentation, by ~2, ~16, and ~25.2 h, respectively. Furthermore, selected populations showed a concomitant reduction in the circadian period of locomotor activity rhythm, implying that circadian clocks and Development time are correlated. Thus, our study provides the first ever unequivocal evidence for the evolution of circadian clocks as a correlated response to selection for faster pre-Adult Development, suggesting that circadian clocks and Development are linked in fruit flies D. melanogaster .