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Aerosol Generation

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Robert W Neumar – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aerosol Generation during chest compression and defibrillation in a swine cardiac arrest model
    Resuscitation, 2021
    Co-Authors: Cindy H Hsu, Mohamad H Tiba, Andre L Boehman, Brendan M Mccracken, Danielle C Leander, Stephanie C Francalancia, Zachary Pickell, Thomas H Sanderson, Kevin R Ward, Robert W Neumar
    Abstract:

    AIM: It remains unclear whether cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation generates Aerosols that can transmit respiratory pathogens. We hypothesize that chest compression and defibrillation generate Aerosols that could contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus in a swine CA model. METHODS: To simulate witnessed CA with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 3 female non-intubated swine underwent 4 min of ventricular fibrfibrillation without chest compression or defibrillation (no-flow) followed by ten 2-min cycles of mechanical chest compression and defibrillation without ventilation. The diameter (0.3-10 µm) and quantity of Aerosols generated during 45-s intervals of no-flow and chest compression before and after defibrillation were analyzed by a particle analyzer. Aerosols generated from the coughs of 4 healthy human subjects were also compared to Aerosols generated by swine. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the total Aerosols generated during chest compression before defibrillation compared to no-flow. In contrast, chest compression after defibrillation generated significantly more Aerosols than chest compression before defibrillation or no-flow (72.4 ±â€¯41.6 × 104 vs 12.3 ±â€¯8.3 × 104 vs 10.5 ±â€¯11.2 × 104; p < 0.05), with a shift in particle size toward larger Aerosols. Two consecutive human coughs generated 54.7 ±â€¯33.9 × 104 Aerosols with a size distribution smaller than post-defibrillation chest compression. CONCLUSIONS: Chest compressions alone did not cause significant Aerosol Generation in this swine model. However, increased Aerosol Generation was detected during chest compression immediately following defibrillation. Additional research is needed to elucidate the clinical significance and mechanisms by which Aerosol Generation during chest compression is modified by defibrillation.

  • abstract 109 Aerosol Generation during chest compression and defibrillation in a swine cardiac arrest model
    Circulation, 2020
    Co-Authors: Cindy H Hsu, Mohamad H Tiba, Andre L Boehman, Brendan M Mccracken, Danielle C Leander, Stephanie C Francalancia, Zachary Pickell, Thomas H Sanderson, Kevin R Ward, Robert W Neumar
    Abstract:

    Introduction: Respiratory infections can occur through the transmission of virus-containing Aerosols from infected individuals. It remains unclear whether cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation generate…

Topi Ronkko – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • performance of ventilation filtration technologies on characteristic traffic related Aerosol down to nanocluster size
    Aerosol Science and Technology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Panu Karjalainen, Sampo Saari, Heino Kuuluvainen, Tapio Kalliohaka, Aimo Taipale, Topi Ronkko
    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTNear traffic routes and urban areas, the outdoor air particle number concentration is typically dominated by ultrafine particles. These particles can enter into the nearby buildings affecting the human exposure on ultrafine particles indoors. In this study, we demonstrate an Aerosol Generation system which mimics the characteristic traffic related Aerosol. The Aerosol Generation system was used to determine the size-resolved particle filtration efficiencies of five typical commercial filters in the particle diameter range of 1.3–240 nm. Two different HEPA filters were observed to be efficient in all particle sizes. A fibrous filter (F7) was efficient at small particle sizes representing the nucleation mode of traffic related Aerosol, but its efficiency decreased down to 60% with the increasing particle size. In contrast, the filtration efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) increased as a function of the particle size, being more efficient for the soot mode of traffic related Aerosol th…

  • Performance of ventilation filtration technologies on characteristic traffic related Aerosol down to nanocluster size
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: Panu Karjalainen, Sampo Saari, Heino Kuuluvainen, Tapio Kalliohaka, Aimo Taipale, Topi Ronkko
    Abstract:

    Near traffic routes and urban areas, the outdoor air particle number concentration is typically dominated by ultrafine particles. These particles can enter into the nearby buildings affecting the human exposure on ultrafine particles indoors. In this study, we demonstrate an Aerosol Generation system which mimics the characteristic traffic related Aerosol. The Aerosol Generation system was used to determine the size-resolved particle filtration efficiencies of five typical commercial filters in the particle diameter range of 1.3–240 nm. Two different HEPA filters were observed to be efficient in all particle sizes. A fibrous filter (F7) was efficient at small particle sizes representing the nucleation mode of traffic related Aerosol, but its efficiency decreased down to 60% with the increasing particle size. In contrast, the filtration efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) increased as a function of the particle size, being more efficient for the soot mode of traffic related Aerosol than for the nucleation mode. An electret filter with a charger was relatively efficient (filtration efficiency >85%) at all the observed particle sizes. The HEPA, F7 and electret filters were found to practically remove the particles/nanoclusters smaller than 3 nm. All in all, the filtration efficiencies were observed to be strongly dependent on the particle size and significant differences were found between different filters. Based on these results, we suggest that the particulate filter test standards should be extended to cover the ultrafine particles, which dominate the particle concentrations in outdoor air and are hazardous for public health. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Aerosol Research

Cullen R Buie – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aerosol Generation by raindrop impact on soil
    Nature Communications, 2015
    Co-Authors: Young Soo Joung, Cullen R Buie
    Abstract:

    Suspended dust and sea salt are currently considered to be two major sources of environmental Aerosol particles. Here, Joung and Buie report another mechanism of Aerosol Generation from rainfall impact on porous soil surfaces, whereby elements can be delivered to the air.

  • Aerosol Generation by raindrop impact on soil
    Nature, 2015
    Co-Authors: Young Soo Joung, Cullen R Buie
    Abstract:

    Aerosols are investigated because of their significant impact on the environment and human health. To date, windblown dust and sea salt from sea spray through bursting bubbles have been considered the chief mechanisms of environmental Aerosol dispersion. Here we investigate Aerosol Generation from droplets hitting wettable porous surfaces including various classifications of soil. We demonstrate that droplets can release Aerosols when they influence porous surfaces, and these Aerosols can deliver elements of the porous medium to the environment. Experiments on various porous media including soil and engineering materials reveal that knowledge of the surface properties and impact conditions can be used to predict when frenzied Aerosol Generation will occur. This study highlights new phenomena associated with droplets on porous media that could have implications for the investigation of Aerosol Generation in the environment.

Cindy H Hsu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aerosol Generation during chest compression and defibrillation in a swine cardiac arrest model
    Resuscitation, 2021
    Co-Authors: Cindy H Hsu, Mohamad H Tiba, Andre L Boehman, Brendan M Mccracken, Danielle C Leander, Stephanie C Francalancia, Zachary Pickell, Thomas H Sanderson, Kevin R Ward, Robert W Neumar
    Abstract:

    AIM: It remains unclear whether cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation generates Aerosols that can transmit respiratory pathogens. We hypothesize that chest compression and defibrillation generate Aerosols that could contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus in a swine CA model. METHODS: To simulate witnessed CA with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 3 female non-intubated swine underwent 4 min of ventricular fibrillation without chest compression or defibrillation (no-flow) followed by ten 2-min cycles of mechanical chest compression and defibrillation without ventilation. The diameter (0.3-10 µm) and quantity of Aerosols generated during 45-s intervals of no-flow and chest compression before and after defibrillation were analyzed by a particle analyzer. Aerosols generated from the coughs of 4 healthy human subjects were also compared to Aerosols generated by swine. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the total Aerosols generated during chest compression before defibrillation compared to no-flow. In contrast, chest compression after defibrillation generated significantly more Aerosols than chest compression before defibrillation or no-flow (72.4 ±â€¯41.6 × 104 vs 12.3 ±â€¯8.3 × 104 vs 10.5 ±â€¯11.2 × 104; p < 0.05), with a shift in particle size toward larger Aerosols. Two consecutive human coughs generated 54.7 ±â€¯33.9 × 104 Aerosols with a size distribution smaller than post-defibrillation chest compression. CONCLUSIONS: Chest compressions alone did not cause significant Aerosol Generation in this swine model. However, increased Aerosol Generation was detected during chest compression immediately following defibrillation. Additional research is needed to elucidate the clinical significance and mechanisms by which Aerosol Generation during chest compression is modified by defibrillation.

  • abstract 109 Aerosol Generation during chest compression and defibrillation in a swine cardiac arrest model
    Circulation, 2020
    Co-Authors: Cindy H Hsu, Mohamad H Tiba, Andre L Boehman, Brendan M Mccracken, Danielle C Leander, Stephanie C Francalancia, Zachary Pickell, Thomas H Sanderson, Kevin R Ward, Robert W Neumar
    Abstract:

    Introduction: Respiratory infections can occur through the transmission of virus-containing Aerosols from infected individuals. It remains unclear whether cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation generate…

Panu Karjalainen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • performance of ventilation filtration technologies on characteristic traffic related Aerosol down to nanocluster size
    Aerosol Science and Technology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Panu Karjalainen, Sampo Saari, Heino Kuuluvainen, Tapio Kalliohaka, Aimo Taipale, Topi Ronkko
    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTNear traffic routes and urban areas, the outdoor air particle number concentration is typically dominated by ultrafine particles. These particles can enter into the nearby buildings affecting the human exposure on ultrafine particles indoors. In this study, we demonstrate an Aerosol Generation system which mimics the characteristic traffic related Aerosol. The Aerosol Generation system was used to determine the size-resolved particle filtration efficiencies of five typical commercial filters in the particle diameter range of 1.3–240 nm. Two different HEPA filters were observed to be efficient in all particle sizes. A fibrous filter (F7) was efficient at small particle sizes representing the nucleation mode of traffic related Aerosol, but its efficiency decreased down to 60% with the increasing particle size. In contrast, the filtration efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) increased as a function of the particle size, being more efficient for the soot mode of traffic related Aerosol th…

  • Performance of ventilation filtration technologies on characteristic traffic related Aerosol down to nanocluster size
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: Panu Karjalainen, Sampo Saari, Heino Kuuluvainen, Tapio Kalliohaka, Aimo Taipale, Topi Ronkko
    Abstract:

    Near traffic routes and urban areas, the outdoor air particle number concentration is typically dominated by ultrafine particles. These particles can enter into the nearby buildings affecting the human exposure on ultrafine particles indoors. In this study, we demonstrate an Aerosol Generation system which mimics the characteristic traffic related Aerosol. The Aerosol Generation system was used to determine the size-resolved particle filtration efficiencies of five typical commercial filters in the particle diameter range of 1.3–240 nm. Two different HEPA filters were observed to be efficient in all particle sizes. A fibrous filter (F7) was efficient at small particle sizes representing the nucleation mode of traffic related Aerosol, but its efficiency decreased down to 60% with the increasing particle size. In contrast, the filtration efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) increased as a function of the particle size, being more efficient for the soot mode of traffic related Aerosol than for the nucleation mode. An electret filter with a charger was relatively efficient (filtration efficiency >85%) at all the observed particle sizes. The HEPA, F7 and electret filters were found to practically remove the particles/nanoclusters smaller than 3 nm. All in all, the filtration efficiencies were observed to be strongly dependent on the particle size and significant differences were found between different filters. Based on these results, we suggest that the particulate filter test standards should be extended to cover the ultrafine particles, which dominate the particle concentrations in outdoor air and are hazardous for public health. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Aerosol Research