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Aerosol Synthesis

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Esko I Kauppinen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Sotiris E Pratsinis – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Albert G. Nasibulin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Wolfgang Peukert – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Alfons Baiker – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Flame Aerosol Synthesis of Metal Oxide Catalysts with Unprecedented Structural and Catalytic Properties
    ChemCatChem, 2011
    Co-Authors: Bjoern Schimmoeller, Sotiris E Pratsinis, Alfons Baiker
    Abstract:

    In the past two decades flame Aerosol Synthesis of novel materials has experienced significant growth in both industry and academia. Recent research is focused on the development of new materials in the nanosized range to be used in various applications, such as catalysts, gas sensors, pigments, and batteries. Several studies indicate that this scalable Synthesis method can result in novel and metastable phases of mixed metal oxides of high purity, which may not be easy accessible by conventional wet- or solid-state processes. Especially for catalytic applications this Synthesis method is emerging as an attractive fast and single-step production route for high surface area materials, often with unprecedented structural and catalytic properties. The large variety of possible organometallic precursors especially for the liquid-fed Aerosol flame Synthesis makes this technique very versatile for catalyst Synthesis. Using the example of the widely used vanadia-based mixed oxide catalysts, we analyze the structural and catalytic properties of flame-derived catalysts and compare them to corresponding catalysts prepared by classical wet-chemistry methods. The often unique structural properties along with their control at proper Synthesis conditions and their influence on catalyst performance in selected reactions are discussed. Subsequently, we give an overview of other recent flame-made mixed metametal oxide based catalysts and make an attempt to assess the potential and limitations of flame Synthesis for the preparation of catalytic mixed metametal oxide materials, and finally we identify future challenges in research.

  • flame Aerosol Synthesis of vanadia titania nanoparticles structural and catalytic properties in the selective catalytic reduction of no by nh3
    Journal of Catalysis, 2001
    Co-Authors: Wendelin J Stark, Sotiris E Pratsinis, Karsten Wegner, Alfons Baiker
    Abstract:

    Abstract Flame Aerosol Synthesis has been used to prepare vanadia–titania nanoparticles with high activity for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3. The mixed oxides were prepared from vanadium and titanium alkoxides which were evaporated into an argon stream and burned in a methane oxygen diffdiffusion flame. Silica-containing samples were produced in a similar way by mixing hexamethyldisiloxane vapor into the precursor stream. Different flame structures were investigated for the effect of temperature and residence time on particle morpmorphology, vanadia surface species, and overall catalytic activity. By changing the oxygen flow rate into the flame, particles with specific surface areas between 23 and 120 m2/g could be produced. High-resolution transmission elecelectron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that nanoparticles were spherical with diameters of 10 to 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron specspectroscopy analysis indicated that vanadia was dispersed on the surface of the titania spheres. No indication for the presence of crystalline V2O5 could be found by X-ray diffraction or HRTEM. Catalysts with a vanadia surface loading of 10 μmol/m2 showed high activity with less than 1% N2O formation up to 350°C. Catalytic activity strongly depended on the vanadia loading; an increase from 2.5 to 7 μmol/m2 resulted in a 30 times higher activity per vanadium. Addition of silica lowered the overall activity but did not change the activation energy. Raman specspectroscopy indicated the presence of vanadate clusters. Temperature-programmed reduction corroborated that no significant amount of vanadia entered the titania lattice to form an interstitial solution. The selective catalytic reduction activity of as-prepared vanadia–titania is comparable to the best catalysts obtained by wet chemical methods.

  • Flame Aerosol Synthesis of Vanadia–Titania Nanoparticles: Structural and Catalytic Properties in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by NH3
    Journal of Catalysis, 2001
    Co-Authors: Wendelin J Stark, Sotiris E Pratsinis, Karsten Wegner, Alfons Baiker
    Abstract:

    Abstract Flame Aerosol Synthesis has been used to prepare vanadia–titania nanoparticles with high activity for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH 3 . The mixed oxides were prepared from vanadium and titanium alkoxides which were evaporated into an argon stream and burned in a methane oxygen diffdiffusion flame. Silica-containing samples were produced in a similar way by mixing hexamethyldisiloxane vapor into the precursor stream. Different flame structures were investigated for the effect of temperature and residence time on particle morpmorphology, vanadia surface species, and overall catalytic activity. By changing the oxygen flow rate into the flame, particles with specific surface areas between 23 and 120 m 2 /g could be produced. High-resolution transmission elecelectron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that nanoparticles were spherical with diameters of 10 to 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron specspectroscopy analysis indicated that vanadia was dispersed on the surface of the titania spheres. No indication for the presence of crystalline V 2 O 5 could be found by X-ray diffraction or HRTEM. Catalysts with a vanadia surface loading of 10 μmol/m 2 showed high activity with less than 1% N 2 O formation up to 350°C. Catalytic activity strongly depended on the vanadia loading; an increase from 2.5 to 7 μmol/m 2 resulted in a 30 times higher activity per vanadium. Addition of silica lowered the overall activity but did not change the activation energy. Raman specspectroscopy indicated the presence of vanadate clusters. Temperature-programmed reduction corroborated that no significant amount of vanadia entered the titania lattice to form an interstitial solution. The selective catalytic reduction activity of as-prepared vanadia–titania is comparable to the best catalysts obtained by wet chemical methods.