Affluence - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Affluence

The Experts below are selected from a list of 19134 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Affluence – Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Scott Atran – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • What motivated the Industrial Revolution: England’s libertarian culture or Affluence per se?
    The Behavioral and brain sciences, 2019
    Co-Authors: Scott Atran

    Abstract:

    What impelled the Industrial Revolution’s spectacular economic growth? Life History Theory, Baumard argues, explains how England’s world-supreme Affluence psychologically fostered innovation; moreover, wherever similar Affluence abounds, a “civilizing process” bringing enlightenment and democracy is apt to evolve. Baumard insightfully analyzes a “constellation of Affluence” but proffers somewhat whiggish history given England’s prior and unique proto-capitalist culture of economic liberty and individualism.

  • what motivated the industrial revolution england s libertarian culture or Affluence per se
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2019
    Co-Authors: Scott Atran

    Abstract:

    What impelled the Industrial Revolution’s spectacular economic growth? Life History Theory, Baumard argues, explains how England’s world-supreme Affluence psychologically fostered innovation; moreover, wherever similar Affluence abounds, a “civilizing process” bringing enlightenment and democracy is apt to evolve. Baumard insightfully analyzes a “constellation of Affluence” but proffers somewhat whiggish history given England’s prior and unique proto-capitalist culture of economic liberty and individualism.

Matthias Richter – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the association between family Affluence and smoking among 15 year old adolescents in 33 european countries israel and canada the role of national wealth
    Addiction, 2015
    Co-Authors: Timokolja Pfortner, Irene Moor, Katharina Rathmann, Anne Hublet, Michal Molcho, Anton E Kunst, Matthias Richter

    Abstract:

    Aims
    To examine the role of national wealth in the association between family Affluence and adolescent weekly smoking, early smoking behaviour and weekly smoking among former experimenters.

    Design and Participants
    Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 in 35 countries from Europe and North America that comprises 60 490 students aged 15 years. Multi-level logistic regression was conducted using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) to explore whether associations between family Affluence and smoking outcomes were dependent upon national wealth.

    Measurement
    Family Affluence Scale (FAS) as an indicator for the socio-economic position of students. Current weekly smoking behaviour is defined as at least weekly smoking (dichotomous). Early smoking behaviour is measured by smoking more than a first puff before age 13 years (dichotomous). Weekly smoking among former experimenters is restricted to those who had tried a first puff in the past.

    Findings
    The logistic multi-level models indicated an association of family Affluence with current weekly smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.088; 95% credible interval (CrI) = 1.055–1.121, P < 0.001], early smoking behaviour (OR = 1.066; CrI = 1.028–1.104, P < 0.001) and smoking among former experimenters (OR = 1.100; CrI = 1.071–1.130; P < 0.001). Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was associated positively and significantly with the relationship between family Affluence and current weekly smoking (OR = 1.005; CrI = 1.003–1.007; P < 0.001), early smoking behaviour (OR = 1.003; CrI = 1.000–1.005; P = 0.012) and smoking among former experimenters (OR = 1.004; CrI = 1.002–1.006; P < 0.001). The association of family Affluence and smoking outcomes was significantly stronger for girls.

    Conclusions
    The difference in smoking prevalence between rich and poor is greater in more affluent countries.

  • high agreement on family Affluence between children s and parents reports international study of 11 year old children
    Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2008
    Co-Authors: Anette Andersen, Candace Currie, Matthias Richter, Rikke Krolner, Lorenza Dallago, Agota Orkenyi, Bjorn Evald Holstein

    Abstract:

    Objective: To examine the agreement between parents’ and children’s reports on four items of family Affluence: number of cars, own bedroom, number of family holidays and number of computers, and to analyse predictors of disagreement. Design: Cross-sectional child–parent validation study of selected items from an internationally standardised questionnaire. Setting: Survey conducted in schools in Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland and Scotland. Participants: 972 11-year-old children and their parents responded to the questionnaires. Results: The child item response rates were high (above 93%). The per cent agreement was low for holidays spent with family (52.5%), but high for the other three items of family Affluence (76.2–88.1%). The kappa coefficients were good or excellent for all items (between 0.41 and 0.74) and the gamma coefficients were strong for all items (between 0.56 and 0.96). Children from single-parent families were more likely to over-report family Affluence (OR 2.67; CI 1.83 to 3.89). Conclusions: Young adolescents’ self-reports of family Affluence are fairly valid across the six countries. This finding suggests that the variables measured can be used in epidemiological studies that aim at ranking children according to socioeconomic position.

Candace Currie – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • psychometric validation of the revised family Affluence scale a latent variable approach
    Child Indicators Research, 2016
    Co-Authors: Torbjørn Torsheim, Christina W. Schnohr, Franco Cavallo, Kate A Levin, Joanna Mazur, Birgit Niclasen, Candace Currie

    Abstract:

    The aim was to develop and test a brief revised version of the family Affluence scale. A total of 7120 students from Denmark, Greenland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Scotland and Slovakia reported on a list of 16 potential indicators of Affluence. Responses were subject to item screening and test of dimensionality. Bifactor analysis revealed a strong general factor of Affluence in all countries, but with additional specific factors in all countries. The specific factors mainly reflected overlapping item content. Item screening was conducted to eliminate items with low discrimination and local dependence, reducing the number of items from sixteen to six: Number of computers, number of cars, own bedroom, holidays abroad, dishwasher, and bathroom. The six-item version was estimated with Samejima’s graded response model, and tested for differential item functioning by country. Three of the six items were invariant across countries, thus anchoring the scale to a common metric across countries. The six-item scale correlated with parental reported income groups in six out of eight countries. Findings support a revision to six items in the family Affluence scale.

  • Equating the HBSC Family Affluence Scale across survey years: a method to account for item parameter drift using the Rasch model
    Quality of Life Research, 2014
    Co-Authors: Guido Makransky, Torbjørn Torsheim, Christina Warrer Schnohr, Candace Currie

    Abstract:

    Purpose To investigate the measurement invariance (MI) of the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) measured in the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, and to describe a method for equating the scale when MI is violated across survey years. Methods This study used a sample of 14,076 Norwegian and 17,365 Scottish adolescents from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 HBSC surveys to investigate the MI of the FAS across survey years. Violations of MI in the form of differential item functioning (DIF) due to item parameter drift (IPD) were modeled within the Rasch framework to ensure that the FAS scores from different survey years remain comparable. Results The results indicate that the FAS is upwardly biased due to IPD in the computer item across survey years in the Norwegian and Scottish samples. Ignoring IPD across survey years resulted in the conclusion that family Affluence is increasing quite consistently in Norway and Scotland. However, the results show that a large part of the increase in the FAS scores can be attributed to bias in the FAS because of IPD across time. The increase in the FAS was more modest in Scotland and slightly negative in Norway once the DIF in the computer item was accounted for in this study. Conclusions When the comparison of family Affluence is necessary over different HBSC survey years or when the longitudinal implications of family Affluence are of interest, it is necessary to account for IPD in interpretation of changes in family Affluence across time.

  • Absolute and relative family Affluence and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents.
    Social science & medicine (1982), 2013
    Co-Authors: Frank J. Elgar, Bart De Clercq, Christina W. Schnohr, Phillippa Bird, Kate E. Pickett, Torbjørn Torsheim, Felix Hofmann, Candace Currie

    Abstract:

    Previous research on the links between income inequality and health and socioeconomic differences in health suggests that relative differences in Affluence impact health and well-being more than absolute Affluence. This study explored whether self-reported psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents relate more closely to relative Affluence (i.e., relative deprivation or rank Affluence within regions or schools) than to absolute Affluence. Data on family material assets and psychosomatic symptoms were collected from 48,523 adolescents in eight countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Norway, Scotland, Poland, Turkey, and Ukraine) as part of the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Multilevel regression analyses of the data showed that relative deprivation (Yitzhaki Index, calculated in regions and in schools) and rank Affluence (in regions) (1) related more closely to symptoms than absolute Affluence, and (2) related to symptoms after differences in absolute Affluence were held constant. However, differences in family material assets, whether they are measured in absolute or relative terms, account for a significant variation in adolescent psychosomatic symptoms. Conceptual and empirical issues relating to the use of material Affluence indices to estimate socioeconomic position are discussed.