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Alberto J. Caban-martinez – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Respiratory Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Young Adults Residing in a “Clean” Indoor Air State
    Journal of Community Health, 2008
    Co-Authors: David J. Lee, Noella A. Dietz, Kristopher L. Arheart, James D. Wilkinson, John D. Clark, Alberto J. Caban-martinez

    Abstract:

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures and its association with respiratory symptoms in a sample of young adults residing in a state with a partial clean indoor Air Law. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida households and a single state University was conducted in 2005. Enrolled participants between 18 and 24 years of age completed a 15–20 min interview assessing past and current SHS exposure and current respiratory symptoms ( n  = 1858). Approximately 60% of the sample were female; nearly 70% were non-Hispanic white, 10% were non-Hispanic Black, and 11% were Hispanic. Over two-thirds reported completing at least some college; 23% reported smoking in the past month. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported visiting a bar or nightclub which exposed them to SHS in the previous month; nearly half (46%) reported SHS exposure while riding in automobiles; 15% reported occupational SHS exposure; and nearly 9% reported living with at least one smoker. In multivariable models, personal smoking behavior, parental smoking history, and exposure to SHS in automobiles and in bars or nightclubs were significantly associated with increased reports of respiratory symptoms. Despite residing in a “clean” indoor Air state, the majority of surveyed young adults continue to report exposure to SHS, especially in automobiles and in bars, and these exposures adversely impact respiratory health. All municipalities should pursue clean indoor Air legislation which does not exempt bars and restaurants. Educational campaigns directed at reducing SHS exposure in motor vehicles also are needed.

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Stanton A. Glantz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The Effects of Workplace Clean Indoor Air Law Coverage on Workers’ Smoking-Related Outcomes.
    Health Economics, 2015
    Co-Authors: Kai-wen Cheng, Feng Liu, Mariaelena Gonzalez, Stanton A. Glantz

    Abstract:

    This study investigated the effects of workplace clean indoor Air Law (CIAL) coverage on worksite compliance with CIALs, smoking participation among indoor workers, and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoker indoor workers. This study improved on previous research by using the probability of a resident in a county covered by workplace CIALs, taking into account the state, county, and city legislation. The county-level probability of being covered by a CIAL is merged into two large nationally representative US surveys on smoking behaviors: Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (2001-2010) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2000-2006) based on the year of the survey and respondent’s geographic location to identify respondents’ CIAL coverage. This study estimated several model specifications of including and not including state or county fixed effects, and the effects of workplace CIALs are consistent across models. Increased coverage by workplace CIALs significantly increased likelihood of reporting a complete smoking restriction by 8% and 10% for the two different datasets, decreased smoking participation among indoor workers by 12%, and decreased SHS exposure among nonsmokers by 28%. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • Association between clean indoor Air Laws and voluntary smokefree rules in homes and cars
    Tobacco Control, 2013
    Co-Authors: Kai-wen Cheng, Cassandra A. Okechukwu, Robert Mcmillen, Stanton A. Glantz

    Abstract:

    Objectives This study examines the influence that smokefree workplaces, restaurants and bars have on the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars, and whether there is an association with adopting smokefree rules in homes and cars. Methods Bivariate probit models were used to jointly estimate the likelihood of living in a smokefree home and having a smokefree car as a function of Law coverage and other variables. Household data were obtained from the nationally representative Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control 2001, 2002 and 2004–2009; clean indoor Air Law data were from the American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation Tobacco Control Laws Database. Results ‘Full coverage’ and ‘partial coverage’ smokefree legislation is associated with an increased likelihood of having voluntary home and car smokefree rules compared with ‘no coverage’. The association between ‘full coverage’ and smokefree rule in homes and cars is 5% and 4%, respectively, and the association between ‘partial coverage’ and smokefree rules in homes and cars is 3% and 4%, respectively. There is a positive association between the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. Conclusions Clean indoor Air Laws provide the additional benefit of encouraging voluntary adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars.

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  • Association between smokefree Laws and voluntary smokefree-home rules.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2011
    Co-Authors: Kai-wen Cheng, Stanton A. Glantz, James Lightwood

    Abstract:

    Background More states and localities are passing restrictions on smoking in public places and workplaces. Purpose To determine what, if any, association exists between enactment of strong Laws making public places or workplaces smokefree on adoption of voluntary smokefree-home policies, particularly whether such Laws are associated with increased smoking at home. Methods Logistic regressions were used to estimate the OR of a person living with a 100% smokefree-home rule as a function of individual characteristics, household composition, and whether or not the residential region is covered by clean indoor Air Laws. The data came from successive waves of the Tobacco Use Supplement to Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) for the years 1992–2007, and the American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation database of state and local government clean indoor Air Laws. Analysis was conducted in 2010 and 2011. Results Living in a county fully covered by a 100% clean indoor Air Law in workplaces or restaurants or bars is associated with an increased likelihood of having a voluntary 100% smokefree-home rule both for people living with smokers (OR=7.76, 95% CI=5.27, 11.43) and not living with smokers (OR=4.12, 95% CI=3.28, 5.16). Conclusions Strong clean indoor Air Laws are associated with large increases in voluntary smokefree-home policies both in the homes with and without smokers. These results support the hypothesis of norm spreading of clean indoor Air Laws.

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Dong-chul Seo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effectiveness of Indiana’s Statewide Smoke-Free Indoor Air Law in Reducing Prevalence of Adult Cigarette Smoking
    The Journal of Primary Prevention, 2020
    Co-Authors: Beom-young Cho, Hsien-chang Lin, Dong-chul Seo

    Abstract:

    Indiana recently implemented a statewide smoke-free indoor Air Law that has prohibited smoking in both restaurants and non-hospitality workplaces. Evidence for the effectiveness of the recent statewide smoke-free indoor Law may persuade 14 states that do not have any statewide smoke-free Laws to enact such Laws. We evaluated the effectiveness of Indiana’s State Smoke-Free Air Law, implemented July 2012, in reducing adult smoking prevalence. We analyzed samples of U.S. adults using a nonequivalent control group design with multi-year, cross-sectional data from the 2011–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (  N = 2,259,014). Four state groups with different levels of comprehensiveness in regard to statewide smoke-free indoor Air Laws in 2011–2016 served as the comparison groups, namely those with: (1) no Law; (2) a partial Law (prohibiting smoking in either one or two of these three settings, namely non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars); (3) a comprehensive Law (prohibiting smoking in all non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars); and (4) those that changed from a partial to a comprehensive Law. We used a difference-in-differences approach with multiple logistic regressions to assess the net effect of the policy with a secular trend removed. The decline rate of cigarette smoking in Indiana was steeper, from 21.2% in 2011–2012 to 17.8% in 2013–2016, than in states in our four comparison groups, which suggests a significant reduction in adult cigarette smoking prevalence above and beyond the downward secular trend observed. All the comparison groups showed higher odds of cigarette smoking than Indiana (adjusted odds ratios range from 1.08 to 1.16). Although a long-term effect of Indiana’s State Smoke-Free Air Law has yet to be evaluated, current data indicate that such a policy appears to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence. The implementation of statewide smoke-free indoor Air Laws in all restaurants and non-hospitality workplaces may help reduce smoking rates in the 14 states that still do not have any statewide smoke-free indoor Air Laws.

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  • Effectiveness of Indiana’s Statewide Smoke-Free Indoor Air Law in Reducing Prevalence of Adult Cigarette Smoking.
    The Journal of Primary Prevention, 2020
    Co-Authors: Beom-young Cho, Hsien-chang Lin, Dong-chul Seo

    Abstract:

    Indiana recently implemented a statewide smoke-free indoor Air Law that has prohibited smoking in both restaurants and non-hospitality workplaces. Evidence for the effectiveness of the recent statewide smoke-free indoor Law may persuade 14 states that do not have any statewide smoke-free Laws to enact such Laws. We evaluated the effectiveness of Indiana’s State Smoke-Free Air Law, implemented July 2012, in reducing adult smoking prevalence. We analyzed samples of U.S. adults using a nonequivalent control group design with multi-year, cross-sectional data from the 2011–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ( N= 2,259,014). Four state groups with different levels of comprehensiveness in regard to statewide smoke-free indoor Air Laws in 2011–2016 served as the comparison groups, namely those with: (1) no Law; (2) a partial Law (prohibiting smoking in either one or two of these three settings, namely non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars); (3) a comprehensive Law (prohibiting smoking in all non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars); and (4) those that changed from a partial to a comprehensive Law. We used a difference-in-differences approach with multiple logistic regressions to assess the net effect of the policy with a secular trend removed. The decline rate of cigarette smoking in Indiana was steeper, from 21.2% in 2011–2012 to 17.8% in 2013–2016, than in states in our four comparison groups, which suggests a significant reduction in adult cigarette smoking prevalence above and beyond the downward secular trend observed. All the comparison groups showed higher odds of cigarette smoking than Indiana (adjusted odds ratios range from 1.08 to 1.16). Although a long-term effect of Indiana’s State Smoke-Free Air Law has yet to be evaluated, current data indicate that such a policy appears to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence. The implementation of statewide smoke-free indoor Air Laws in all restaurants and non-hospitality workplaces may help reduce smoking rates in the 14 states that still do not have any statewide smoke-free indoor Air Laws.

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  • Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation Between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions
    Health Education & Behavior, 2011
    Co-Authors: Jonathan T. Macy, Susan E. Middlestadt, Dong-chul Seo, Lloyd J. Kolbe, Stephen J. Jay

    Abstract:

    Smoke-free Air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free Air Law and four without a comprehensive Law. Agreement with regulating smoking in public places was significantly associated with attitudes and perceived normative pressure about quitting. Nicotine dependence was significantly associated with attitudes and perceived behavioral control. There was also a direct effect of nicotine dependence on intention to take measures to quit smoking. Smoke-free Air Laws appear to influence quitting intentions through the formation of positive attitudes about regulating smoking in public places and the perception of normative pressure to take measures to quit. Implications for smoke-free Air policy campaigns and challenges in evaluating their effectiveness are discussed.

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