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James Longhurst – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Air pollution deprivation and health understanding relationships to add value to local Air Quality Management policy and practice in wales uk
    Journal of Public Health, 2016
    Co-Authors: James Longhurst, Jo Barnes, Huw Brunt, Gabriel Scally, Sarah J Jones, Enda T Hayes

    Abstract:

    Background
    Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to Air Quality Management efforts by reducing Air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities.

    Methods
    An ecological study assessed small-area associations between Air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter), deprivation status and health outcomes in Wales, UK.

    Results
    Air pollution concentrations were highest in ‘most’ deprived areas. When considered separately, deprivation-health associations were stronger than Air pollution-health associations. Considered simultaneously, Air pollution added to deprivation-health associations; interactions
    between Air pollution and deprivation modified and strengthened associations with all-cause and respiratory disease mortality, especially in ‘most’ deprived areas where most-vulnerable people lived and where health needs were greatest.

    Conclusion
    There is a need to reduce Air pollution-related risks for all. However, it is also the case that greater health gains can result from considering local Air pollution problems and solutions in the context of wider health-determinants and acting on a better understanding of relationships. Informed and co-ordinated Air pollution mitigation and public health action in high deprivation and pollution areas can reduce risks and inequalities. To achieve this, greater public health integration and collaboration in local Air Quality Management policy and practice is
    needed.

  • local Air Quality Management policy and practice in the uk the case for greater public health integration and engagement
    Environmental Science & Policy, 2016
    Co-Authors: James Longhurst, Jo Barnes, Huw Brunt, Gabriel Scally, Enda T Hayes

    Abstract:

    Abstract The UK’s Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) regime is designed to protect people’s health from the ill-effects of Air pollution, but it is failing to achieve its full potential. The Public Health aspects of, perspectives on, and integration and engagement in, LAQM have been poorly considered to date. This critical literature review assessed LAQM-related strengths and limitations in order to explore how Public Health, through greater integration and engagement, can add value to the regime. ‘Structure’ and ‘process’ weaknesses were identified, including: a poorly defined Public Health role, a narrowly-scoped prescribed process, risk assessment uncertainties, ineffective communications, shallow evaluations and disconnected policies. Separately and cumulatively, these have hindered Public Health integration in LAQM policy and practice and stunted the regime’s evolution. Engaging Public Health in LAQM future design and delivery can help solve these problems, by improving risk assessments and raising awareness of Air pollution and other health-influencing relationships, targeting action in high-need areas, coordinating Air pollution mitigation and health improvement interventions, and connecting different policy areas. Increasing Public Health integration and engagement in LAQM can enhance the existing regime. Acting now is timely from both LAQM and Public Health perspectives. This review’s findings should be used to inform debates and decisions around the future development of Local Air Quality Management arrangements both in the UK and beyond.

  • is local Air Quality Management a successful strategy for achieving selected eu limit values
    Artificial Intelligence Review, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jo Barnes, Enda T Hayes, James Longhurst

    Abstract:

    This research examines the role of Local Air Quality Management Action Planning in achieving the EU limit value for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) annual mean, focusing on those Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) declared in England before July 2005 for exceedences of the NO2 annual mean objective from road traffic sources. The paper describes the initial stages of the methodology, analysing the availability of Air Quality Action Plans (AQAPs) and annual mean NO2 monitoring data. The research finds an absence of government monitoring sites with adequate nitrogen dioxide data relative to the selected AQMAs, as well as an absence of AQAPs and annual progress reports. The paper concludes that Local Air Quality Management is insufficiently calibrated to provide adequate support to the achievement of the EU limit value for NO2 annual mean.

Enda T Hayes – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Air pollution deprivation and health understanding relationships to add value to local Air Quality Management policy and practice in wales uk
    Journal of Public Health, 2016
    Co-Authors: James Longhurst, Jo Barnes, Huw Brunt, Gabriel Scally, Sarah J Jones, Enda T Hayes

    Abstract:

    Background
    Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to Air Quality Management efforts by reducing Air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities.

    Methods
    An ecological study assessed small-area associations between Air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter), deprivation status and health outcomes in Wales, UK.

    Results
    Air pollution concentrations were highest in ‘most’ deprived areas. When considered separately, deprivation-health associations were stronger than Air pollution-health associations. Considered simultaneously, Air pollution added to deprivation-health associations; interactions
    between Air pollution and deprivation modified and strengthened associations with all-cause and respiratory disease mortality, especially in ‘most’ deprived areas where most-vulnerable people lived and where health needs were greatest.

    Conclusion
    There is a need to reduce Air pollution-related risks for all. However, it is also the case that greater health gains can result from considering local Air pollution problems and solutions in the context of wider health-determinants and acting on a better understanding of relationships. Informed and co-ordinated Air pollution mitigation and public health action in high deprivation and pollution areas can reduce risks and inequalities. To achieve this, greater public health integration and collaboration in local Air Quality Management policy and practice is
    needed.

  • local Air Quality Management policy and practice in the uk the case for greater public health integration and engagement
    Environmental Science & Policy, 2016
    Co-Authors: James Longhurst, Jo Barnes, Huw Brunt, Gabriel Scally, Enda T Hayes

    Abstract:

    Abstract The UK’s Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) regime is designed to protect people’s health from the ill-effects of Air pollution, but it is failing to achieve its full potential. The Public Health aspects of, perspectives on, and integration and engagement in, LAQM have been poorly considered to date. This critical literature review assessed LAQM-related strengths and limitations in order to explore how Public Health, through greater integration and engagement, can add value to the regime. ‘Structure’ and ‘process’ weaknesses were identified, including: a poorly defined Public Health role, a narrowly-scoped prescribed process, risk assessment uncertainties, ineffective communications, shallow evaluations and disconnected policies. Separately and cumulatively, these have hindered Public Health integration in LAQM policy and practice and stunted the regime’s evolution. Engaging Public Health in LAQM future design and delivery can help solve these problems, by improving risk assessments and raising awareness of Air pollution and other health-influencing relationships, targeting action in high-need areas, coordinating Air pollution mitigation and health improvement interventions, and connecting different policy areas. Increasing Public Health integration and engagement in LAQM can enhance the existing regime. Acting now is timely from both LAQM and Public Health perspectives. This review’s findings should be used to inform debates and decisions around the future development of Local Air Quality Management arrangements both in the UK and beyond.

  • is local Air Quality Management a successful strategy for achieving selected eu limit values
    Artificial Intelligence Review, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jo Barnes, Enda T Hayes, James Longhurst

    Abstract:

    This research examines the role of Local Air Quality Management Action Planning in achieving the EU limit value for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) annual mean, focusing on those Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) declared in England before July 2005 for exceedences of the NO2 annual mean objective from road traffic sources. The paper describes the initial stages of the methodology, analysing the availability of Air Quality Action Plans (AQAPs) and annual mean NO2 monitoring data. The research finds an absence of government monitoring sites with adequate nitrogen dioxide data relative to the selected AQMAs, as well as an absence of AQAPs and annual progress reports. The paper concludes that Local Air Quality Management is insufficiently calibrated to provide adequate support to the achievement of the EU limit value for NO2 annual mean.

Mukesh Khare – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Air Quality Management and Control
    Urban Air Quality Monitoring Modelling and Human Exposure Assessment, 2020
    Co-Authors: S.m. Shiva Nagendra, Mukesh Khare, Uwe Schlink, M. Diya

    Abstract:

    Urban Air Quality is a critical issue in both developed and developing countries. In the recent past, the governments in both the developed and developing countries have initiated several strategies and action plans to address the urban Air Quality issues. This chapter discusses the principles of Air Quality Management, framework for Air Quality Management, Air Quality standards and legislations, Air Quality Management practices in selected countries and challenges in Air Quality Management.

  • ambient Air pollutant monitoring and analysis protocol for low and middle income countries an element of comprehensive urban Air Quality Management framework
    Atmospheric Environment, 2020
    Co-Authors: Sunil Gulia, Isha Khanna, Komal Shukla, Mukesh Khare

    Abstract:

    Abstract Rapid urbanization along with industrial growth is one of the major causes of elevated Air pollution levels in urban areas of low and middle income countries (LMICs). They are further associated with adverse health impacts within urban ecosystems. In order to manage and control deteriorating urban Air Quality, an efficient and effective urban Air Quality Management plan is required consisting of systematic sampling, monitoring and analysis; modelling; and control protocols. Air Quality monitoring is the essential and basic step that develops foundation of any Management plan. The present research article describes a comprehensive methodology for establishing a systematic and robust Air Quality monitoring network in LMICs and strengthening the effectiveness and efficiency of urban Air Quality Management frameworks. It also describes step-by-step procedures for chemical characterization of both organic and inorganic constituents of ambient particulate matter along with molecular markers, which are essential to identify the corresponding sources of particulate matter, an integral part of Air pollution monitoring protocol. Additionally, it discusses the need for coupling low cost wireless sensor-based stations with a limited number of manual and conventional real time ambient Air monitoring stations in order to make it cost effective, yet robust. The article demonstrates that satellite-based remote sensing monitoring calibrated with ground level measurement has the potential for regional scale Air Quality monitoring that captures transport of transboundary pollution.

  • urban local Air Quality Management framework for non attainment areas in indian cities
    Science of The Total Environment, 2018
    Co-Authors: Sunil Gulia, Jo Barnes, S Shiva M Nagendra, Mukesh Khare

    Abstract:

    Increasing urban Air pollution level in Indian cities is one of the major concerns for policy makers due to its impact on public health. The growth in population and increase in associated motorised road transport demand is one of the major causes of increasing Air pollution in most urban areas along with other sources e.g., road dust, construction dust, biomass burning etc. The present study documents the development of an urban local Air Quality Management (ULAQM) framework at urban hotspots (non-attainment area) and a pathway for the flow of information from goal setting to policy making. The ULAQM also includes assessment and Management of Air pollution episodic conditions at these hotspots, which currently available city/regional-scale Air Quality Management plans do not address. The prediction of extreme pollutant concentrations using a hybrid model differentiates the ULAQM from other existing Air Quality Management plans. The developed ULAQM framework has been applied and validated at one of the busiest traffic intersections in Delhi and Chennai cities. Various scenarios have been tested targeting the effective reductions in elevated levels of NOx and PM2.5 concentrations. The results indicate that a developed ULAQM framework is capable of providing an evidence-based graded action to reduce ambient pollution levels within the specified standard level at pre-identified locations. The ULAQM framework methodology is generalised and therefore can be applied to other non-attainment areas of the country.