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Allene-Oxide Cyclase

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Bettina Hause – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Molecular Cloning of Allene Oxide Cyclase
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Irene Stenzel, Bettina Hause, Helmut Maucher, Mats Hamberg, Rudi Grimm, Martin Ganali, Claus Dr. Wasternack

    Abstract:

    )-phytodienoic acid, the ultimateprecursor of jasmonic acid. This dimeric enzyme haspreviously been purified, and two almost identical N-terminal peptides were found, suggesting allene oxideCyclase to be a homodimeric protein. Furthermore, thenative protein was N-terminally processed. Using de-generate primers, a polymerase chain reaction fragmentcould be generated from tomato, which was further usedto isolate a full-length cDNA clone of 1 kilobase paircoding for a protein of 245 amino acids with a molecularmass of 26 kDa. Whereas expression of the whole codingregion failed to detect allene oxide Cyclase activity, a5

  • Jasmonate is required for the response to osmotic stress in rice
    Environmental and Experimental Botany, 2020
    Co-Authors: Gangliang Tang, Bettina Hause, Peter Nick, Junning Ma, Michael Riemann

    Abstract:

    Abstract Plants have the ability to alleviate the harmful effects caused by abiotic and biotic stress. Phytohormones play a very important role in the acclimation to these stresses. To study the role of jasmonate in the acclimation to osmotic stress, an ALLENE OXIDE Cyclase (AOC) mutant of rice (cpm2), disrupted in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA), and its wild type (WT) background were employed to investigate their responses to osmotic stress caused by treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. WT showed tolerance to osmotic stress, correlated with a fast transient increase of JA and JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the shoots prior to an increase in abscisic acid (ABA), followed by a second increase in jasmonates when exposing to osmotic stress during 24 hours. In roots, the pattern of hormonal increase was similar, but the response appeared to be faster, and remained transient, also with respect to low levels of jasmonates upon continuing osmotic stress. The mutant, which was containing extremely low levels of jasmonates, was hypersensitive to the stress. However, ABA accumulated in both, shoots and roots of cpm2, to similar (but not equal) levels as those seen in the WT, demonstrating that the biosynthesis or catabolism of ABA in response to osmotic stress is at least partially independent of JA, but can be modulated by JA. Our results suggest that jasmonates operate in parallel, presumably synergistically, to ABA, and are indispensable for osmotic stress tolerance in rice.

  • Activity Regulation by Heteromerization of Arabidopsis Allene Oxide Cyclase Family Members
    Plants (Basel Switzerland), 2016
    Co-Authors: Markus Otto, Claus Wasternack, Christin Naumann, Wolfgang Brandt, Bettina Hause

    Abstract:

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development. A crucial step in JA biosynthesis is catalyzed by allene oxide Cyclase (AOC). Four genes encoding functional AOCs (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3 and AOC4) have been characterized for Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organ- and tissue-specific expression, mutant phenotypes, promoter activities and initial in vivo protein interaction studies suggesting functional redundancy and diversification, including first hints at enzyme activity control by protein-protein interaction. Here, these analyses were extended by detailed analysis of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Treatment of purified AOC2 with SDS at different temperatures, chemical cross-linking experiments and protein structure analysis by molecular modelling approaches were performed. Several salt bridges between monomers and a hydrophobic core within the AOC2 trimer were identified and functionally proven by site-directed mutagenesis. The data obtained showed that AOC2 acts as a trimer. Finally, AOC activity was determined in heteromers formed by pairwise combinations of the four AOC isoforms. The highest activities were found for heteromers containing AOC4 + AOC1 and AOC4 + AOC2, respectively. All data are in line with an enzyme activity control of all four AOCs by heteromerization, thereby supporting a putative fine-tuning in JA formation by various regulatory principles.

Claus Wasternack – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Shift in Fatty Acid and Oxylipin Pattern of Tomato Leaves Following Overexpression of the Allene Oxide Cyclase
    Advanced Research on Plant Lipids, 2020
    Co-Authors: Heiko Weichert, Helmut Maucher, Claus Wasternack, Ellen Hornung, Ivo Feussner

    Abstract:

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a source of numerous oxidation products, the oxylipins. In leaves, α-linolenic acid (α-LeA) is the preferential substrate for lipid peroxidation reactions. This reaction may be catalyzed either by a 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX) or by a 13-LOX and oxygen is inserted regioselectively as well as stereospecifically leading to formation of 13 S- or 9 S-hydroperoxy octadecatrienoic acid (13-/9-HPOT; Brash, 1999). At least, seven different enzyme families or reaction branches within the LOX pathway can use these HPOTs or other hydroperoxy PUFAs leading to (i) keto-PUFAs (LOX); (ii) epoxy hydroxy-PUFAs (epoxy alcohol synthase, EAS); (iii) octadecanoids and jasmonates (allene oxide synthase, AOS); (iv) leaf aldehydes and leaf alcohols (hydroperoxide lyase, HPL); (v) hydroxy PUFAs (reductase); (vi) divinyl ether PUFAs (divinyl ether synthase, DES); and (vii) epoxy- or dihydrodiol-PUFAs (peroxygenase, PDX; Fig. 1; Feussner and Wasternack, 2002).

  • Activity Regulation by Heteromerization of Arabidopsis Allene Oxide Cyclase Family Members
    Plants (Basel Switzerland), 2016
    Co-Authors: Markus Otto, Claus Wasternack, Christin Naumann, Wolfgang Brandt, Bettina Hause

    Abstract:

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development. A crucial step in JA biosynthesis is catalyzed by allene oxide Cyclase (AOC). Four genes encoding functional AOCs (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3 and AOC4) have been characterized for Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organ- and tissue-specific expression, mutant phenotypes, promoter activities and initial in vivo protein interaction studies suggesting functional redundancy and diversification, including first hints at enzyme activity control by protein-protein interaction. Here, these analyses were extended by detailed analysis of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Treatment of purified AOC2 with SDS at different temperatures, chemical cross-linking experiments and protein structure analysis by molecular modelling approaches were performed. Several salt bridges between monomers and a hydrophobic core within the AOC2 trimer were identified and functionally proven by site-directed mutagenesis. The data obtained showed that AOC2 acts as a trimer. Finally, AOC activity was determined in heteromers formed by pairwise combinations of the four AOC isoforms. The highest activities were found for heteromers containing AOC4 + AOC1 and AOC4 + AOC2, respectively. All data are in line with an enzyme activity control of all four AOCs by heteromerization, thereby supporting a putative fine-tuning in JA formation by various regulatory principles.

  • ALLENE OXIDE Cyclase (AOC) gene family members of Arabidopsis thaliana: tissue- and organ-specific promoter activities and in vivo heteromerization*
    Journal of Experimental Botany, 2012
    Co-Authors: Irene Stenzel, Bettina Hause, Otto Miersch, Markus Otto, Carolin Delker, Nils Kirmse, Diana Schmidt, Claus Wasternack

    Abstract:

    Jasmonates are important signals in plant stress responses and plant development. An essential step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is catalysed by ALLENE OXIDE Cyclase (AOC) which establishes the naturally occurring enantiomeric structure of jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four genes encode four functional AOC polypeptides (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3, and AOC4) raising the question of functional redundancy or diversification. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed an organ-specific expression pattern, whereas detailed inspection of transgenic lines expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of individual AOC promoters showed partially redundant promoter activities during development: (i) In fully developed leaves, promoter activities of AOC1, AOC2, and AOC3 appeared throughout all leaf tissue, but AOC4 promoter activity was vascular bundle-specific; (ii) only AOC3 and AOC4 showed promoter activities in roots; and (iii) partially specific promoter activities were found for AOC1 and AOC4 in flower development. In situ hybridization of flower stalks confirmed the GUS activity data. Characterization of single and double AOC loss-of-function mutants further corroborates the hypothesis of functional redundancies among individual AOCs due to a lack of phenotypes indicative of JA deficiency (e.g. male sterility). To elucidate whether redundant AOC expression might contribute to regulation on AOC activity level, protein interaction studies using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were performed and showed that all AOCs can interact among each other. The data suggest a putative regulatory mechanism of temporal and spatial fine-tuning in JA formation by differential expression and via possible heteromerization of the four AOCs.

Otto Miersch – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • ALLENE OXIDE Cyclase (AOC) gene family members of Arabidopsis thaliana: tissue- and organ-specific promoter activities and in vivo heteromerization*
    Journal of Experimental Botany, 2012
    Co-Authors: Irene Stenzel, Bettina Hause, Otto Miersch, Markus Otto, Carolin Delker, Nils Kirmse, Diana Schmidt, Claus Wasternack

    Abstract:

    Jasmonates are important signals in plant stress responses and plant development. An essential step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is catalysed by ALLENE OXIDE Cyclase (AOC) which establishes the naturally occurring enantiomeric structure of jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four genes encode four functional AOC polypeptides (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3, and AOC4) raising the question of functional redundancy or diversification. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed an organ-specific expression pattern, whereas detailed inspection of transgenic lines expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of individual AOC promoters showed partially redundant promoter activities during development: (i) In fully developed leaves, promoter activities of AOC1, AOC2, and AOC3 appeared throughout all leaf tissue, but AOC4 promoter activity was vascular bundle-specific; (ii) only AOC3 and AOC4 showed promoter activities in roots; and (iii) partially specific promoter activities were found for AOC1 and AOC4 in flower development. In situ hybridization of flower stalks confirmed the GUS activity data. Characterization of single and double AOC loss-of-function mutants further corroborates the hypothesis of functional redundancies among individual AOCs due to a lack of phenotypes indicative of JA deficiency (e.g. male sterility). To elucidate whether redundant AOC expression might contribute to regulation on AOC activity level, protein interaction studies using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were performed and showed that all AOCs can interact among each other. The data suggest a putative regulatory mechanism of temporal and spatial fine-tuning in JA formation by differential expression and via possible heteromerization of the four AOCs.

  • Spodoptera littoralis-induced lectin expression in tobacco.
    Plant and Cell Physiology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Gianni Vandenborre, Bettina Hause, Claus Wasternack, Otto Miersch, Guy Smagghe, Els J. M. Van Damme

    Abstract:

    The induced defense response in plants towards herbivores is mainly regulated by jasmonates and leads to the accumulation of so-called jasmonate-induced proteins. Recently, a jasmonate (JA) inducible lectin called Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin or NICTABA was discovered in tobacco (N. tabacum cv Samsun) leaves. Tobacco plants also accumulate the lectin after insect attack by caterpillars. To study the functional role of NICTABA, the accumulation of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA as well as different JA metabolites were analyzed in tobacco leaves after herbivory by larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) and correlated with NICTABA accumulation. It was shown that OPDA, JA as well as its methyl ester can trigger NICTABA accumulation. However, hydroxylation of JA and its subsequent sulfation and glucosylation results in inactive compounds that have lost the capacity to induce NICTABA gene expression. The expression profile of NICTABA after caterpillar feeding was recorded in local as well as in systemic leaves, and compared to the expression of several genes encoding defense proteins, and genes encoding a tobacco systemin and the allene oxide Cyclase, an enzyme in JA biosynthesis. Furthermore, the accumulation of NICTABA was quantified after S. littoralis herbivory and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to study the localization of NICTABA in the tobacco leaf.

  • PAMP‐induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid
    Plant Journal, 2008
    Co-Authors: Vincentius A. Halim, Otto Miersch, Lennart Eschen-lippold, Simone Altmann, Dorothea Ellinger, Dierk Scheel, Sabine Rosahl

    Abstract:

    Summary

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide Cyclase and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep-13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA-deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans.