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Alpha Zearalenol

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De Saeger Sarah – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Toxicokinetics of AlphaZearalenol and its masked form in rats and the comparative biotransformation in liver microsomes from different livestock and humans
    'Elsevier BV', 2020
    Co-Authors: Yang Shupeng, Li Yanshen, De Boevre Marthe, De Saeger Sarah, Zhou Jinhui, Zhang Huiyan, Sun Feifei

    Abstract:

    AlphaZearalenol (Alpha-ZEL) and its masked form AlphaZearalenol-14 glucoside (Alpha-ZEL-14G) have much higher oestrogenic activity than zearalenone. Owing to very limited toxicokinetic and metabolic data, no reference points could be established for risk assessment. To circumvent it, the toxicokinetic, metabolic profiles, and phenotyping of Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G were comprehensively investigated in this study. As a result, the plasma concentrations of Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G were all below LOQ after oral administration, while after iv injection, both could be significantly bio-transformed into various metabolites. A complete hydrolysis of Alpha-ZEL-14G contributed to Alpha-ZEL overall toxicity. Additionally, 31 phase I and 10 phase II metabolites of Alpha-ZEL, and 9 phase I and 5 phase II metabolites were identified for Alpha-ZEL-14G. For Alpha-ZEL, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways, while for Alpha-ZEL-14G, it was deglycosylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and glucuronidation. Significant metabolic differences were observed for Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G in the liver microsomes of rats, chickens, swine, goats, cows and humans. Phenotyping studies indicated that Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G were mediated by CYP 3A4, 2C8, and 1A2. Moreover, the deglycosylation of Alpha-ZEL-14G was critically mediated by CES-I and CES-II. The acquired data would provide fundamental perspectives for risk evaluation of mycotoxins and their modified forms

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  • Effect of ensiling duration on the fate of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and their derivatives in maize silage
    'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 2020
    Co-Authors: Jensen Tolke, De Boevre Marthe, De Saeger Sarah, Preusske Nils, Soennichsen, Frank D, Kramer Ewald, Klink Holger, Verreet Joseph-alexander, Birr Tim

    Abstract:

    Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives are frequently detected in freshly harvested forage maize. This study assessed the time course effects during ensiling of forage maize on the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins, using laboratory-scale silos and artificially contaminated raw material. A multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was used to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and their derivatives DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, deepoxy-DON, AlphaZearalenol and beta-Zearalenol. A significant increase of DON was observed during ensiling, whereas the levels of DON-3-glucoside and its acetylated forms proportionally decreased. In contrast, levels of ZEN, AlphaZearalenol and beta-Zearalenol were not affected by the ensiling process. Based on these findings, ensiling is not a practical method for reducing the total amount of Fusarium mycotoxins present at harvest

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  • Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during processing of Nigerian traditional infant foods (ogi and soybean powder)
    'Elsevier BV', 2019
    Co-Authors: Chilaka Cynthia, De Boevre Marthe, Atanda, Olusegun Oladimeji, De Saeger Sarah

    Abstract:

    The influence of processing methods used to produce traditional Nigerian infant foods (ogi and processed soybean powder) on four European Union regulated Fusarium mycotoxins using naturally and artificially contaminated raw materials was studied using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Generally, there was a significant reduction of all the mycotoxins when compared to the initial concentration of the raw materials. Reduction in concentrations of the mycotoxins during ogi-processing started immediately after 36 h’ steeping/fermentation for all the mycotoxins (fumonisin B-1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin), and proceeded along the process chain (milling and sieving). In addition, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (16 +/- 3.2 mu g/kg) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (9 +/- 5.5 mu g/kg) initially absent in the raw maize were detected in the final ogi product. beta-Zearalenol, hydrolysed fumonisin B-1, and HT-2 toxin were also detected at varying concentrations. Regarding soybean processing, a similar trend was observed with fumonisin B-1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin, irrespective of the method used or the initial concentration. Other mycotoxins detected in soybean product include 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, AlphaZearalenol, beta-Zearalenol, and zearalenone-14-glucoside. Although there was a reduction in the concentration of the free mycotoxin because of processing, other mycotoxins were detected in the products and thus, may present an additional health risk on consumers

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Fiorenza Minervini – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, Alpha– and beta-Zearalenol) on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm
    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Angela Filannino, Tom Ae Stout, Bart M Gadella, Edita Sostaric, Flavia Pizzi, Ben Colenbrander, Maria Elena Dell'aquila, Fiorenza Minervini

    Abstract:

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives AlphaZearalenol and beta-Zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for ‘estrogen-like’ effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, AlphaZearalenol, beta-Zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM – 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM) after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only AlphaZearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: AlphaZearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-Zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas Alpha– and beta- Zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, AlphaZearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-Zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility. Conversely, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol did not induce the acrosome reaction but induced hyperactive motility albeit to a different extent. Conclusions Apparently, the mycotoxin zearalenone has 17beta-estradiol-like estrogenic activity that enables it to induce hyperactivated motility of equine sperm cells, whereas the Zearalenol derivatives induce premature completion of the acrosome reaction and thereby adversely affect stallion sperm physiology. The Alpha form of Zearalenol still possessed the estrogenic ability to induce hyperactivated motility, whereas its beta stereo-isomere had lost this property.

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  • Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, Alpha– and beta-Zearalenol) on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm
    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Angela Filannino, Tom Ae Stout, Bart M Gadella, Edita Sostaric, Flavia Pizzi, Ben Colenbrander, Maria Elena Dell'aquila, Fiorenza Minervini

    Abstract:

    Background
    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives AlphaZearalenol and beta-Zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for ‘estrogen-like’ effects.

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  • Toxic effects of the mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes and 17β-estradiol levels in mural granulosa cell cultures
    Toxicology in Vitro, 2001
    Co-Authors: Fiorenza Minervini, Maria Elena Dell'aquila, F Maritato, P Minoia, A Visconti

    Abstract:

    Moulds parasites of livestock foodstuffs alter the quality of grains by synthesizing mycotoxins. Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives (Alpha– and beta-Zearalenol, zeranol, taleranol and zearalanone) are produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium and, after ingestion via contaminated cereals, may lead to fertility disturbances and other reproductive pathologies. Zearalenone, AlphaZearalenol and zearalanone were tested, at levels ranging from 0.3 to 30 microg/ml, in order to evaluate the effect on the in vitro maturation (IVM) rate of bovine oocytes and on the formation of 17 beta-estradiol in supernatants of mural granulosa cells (GC) cultures. These compounds induced dose-dependent oocyte maturation delay and chromatin abnormalities. Maturation of oocytes to metaphase II (M II) was inhibited in oocytes cultured in the presence of 30 microg/ml ZEA, AlphaZearalenol or zearalanone, with a significant increase in chromatin abnormalities occurring in the presence of ZEA (P

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De Boevre Marthe – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Toxicokinetics of AlphaZearalenol and its masked form in rats and the comparative biotransformation in liver microsomes from different livestock and humans
    'Elsevier BV', 2020
    Co-Authors: Yang Shupeng, Li Yanshen, De Boevre Marthe, De Saeger Sarah, Zhou Jinhui, Zhang Huiyan, Sun Feifei

    Abstract:

    AlphaZearalenol (Alpha-ZEL) and its masked form AlphaZearalenol-14 glucoside (Alpha-ZEL-14G) have much higher oestrogenic activity than zearalenone. Owing to very limited toxicokinetic and metabolic data, no reference points could be established for risk assessment. To circumvent it, the toxicokinetic, metabolic profiles, and phenotyping of Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G were comprehensively investigated in this study. As a result, the plasma concentrations of Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G were all below LOQ after oral administration, while after iv injection, both could be significantly bio-transformed into various metabolites. A complete hydrolysis of Alpha-ZEL-14G contributed to Alpha-ZEL overall toxicity. Additionally, 31 phase I and 10 phase II metabolites of Alpha-ZEL, and 9 phase I and 5 phase II metabolites were identified for Alpha-ZEL-14G. For Alpha-ZEL, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways, while for Alpha-ZEL-14G, it was deglycosylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and glucuronidation. Significant metabolic differences were observed for Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G in the liver microsomes of rats, chickens, swine, goats, cows and humans. Phenotyping studies indicated that Alpha-ZEL and Alpha-ZEL-14G were mediated by CYP 3A4, 2C8, and 1A2. Moreover, the deglycosylation of Alpha-ZEL-14G was critically mediated by CES-I and CES-II. The acquired data would provide fundamental perspectives for risk evaluation of mycotoxins and their modified forms

    Free Register to Access Article

  • Effect of ensiling duration on the fate of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and their derivatives in maize silage
    'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 2020
    Co-Authors: Jensen Tolke, De Boevre Marthe, De Saeger Sarah, Preusske Nils, Soennichsen, Frank D, Kramer Ewald, Klink Holger, Verreet Joseph-alexander, Birr Tim

    Abstract:

    Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives are frequently detected in freshly harvested forage maize. This study assessed the time course effects during ensiling of forage maize on the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins, using laboratory-scale silos and artificially contaminated raw material. A multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was used to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and their derivatives DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, deepoxy-DON, AlphaZearalenol and beta-Zearalenol. A significant increase of DON was observed during ensiling, whereas the levels of DON-3-glucoside and its acetylated forms proportionally decreased. In contrast, levels of ZEN, AlphaZearalenol and beta-Zearalenol were not affected by the ensiling process. Based on these findings, ensiling is not a practical method for reducing the total amount of Fusarium mycotoxins present at harvest

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  • Insights into in vivo absolute oral bioavailability, biotransformation, and toxicokinetics of zearalenone, α-Zearalenol, β-Zearalenol, zearalenone-14-glucoside, and zearalenone-14-sulfate in pigs
    'American Chemical Society (ACS)', 2019
    Co-Authors: Catteuw Amelie, Broekaert Nathan, De Baere Siegrid, Lauwers Marianne, Gasthuys Elke, Huybrechts Bart, Callebaut Alfons, Ivanova Lada, Uhlig Silvio, De Boevre Marthe

    Abstract:

    The aim of this study was to determine the toxicokinetic characteristics of ZEN and its modified forms, AlphaZearalenol (Alpha-ZEL), beta-Zearalenol (beta-ZEL), zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN14G), and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN14S), including presystemic and systemic hydrolysis in pigs. Crossover pig trials were performed by means of intravenous and oral administration of ZEN and its modified forms. Systemic plasma concentrations of the administered toxins and their metabolites were quantified and further processed via tailor-made compartmental toxicokinetic models. Furthermore, portal plasma was analyzed to unravel the site of hydrolysis, and urine samples were analyzed to determine urinary excretion. Results demonstrate complete presystemic hydrolysis of ZEN14G and ZEN14S to ZEN and high oral bioavailability for all administered compounds, with further extensive first-pass glucuronidation. Conclusively, the modified-ZEN forms Alpha-ZEL, beta-ZEL, ZEN14G, and ZEN14S contribute to overall ZEN systemic toxicity in pigs and should be taken into account for risk assessment

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