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Bryan G. Young – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • An Improved Method to Shorten Physiological Dormancy of Giant Ragweed ( Ambrosia Trifida ) Seed
    Weed Science, 2019
    Co-Authors: Nick T. Harre, Stephen C. Weller, Bryan G. Young

    Abstract:

    Timely results from whole-plant, herbicide-resistant weed screenings are crucial to heighten grower awareness. However, the high degree of physiological dormancy of giant ragweed ( Ambrosia Trifida L.) seed exacerbates this process. The most effective methods for alleviating dormancy, to date, are either labor-intensive (embryo excision) or require several weeks (soil stratification). This research describes a conditioning process involving clipping and aeration of seed in water that is highly effective at alleviating dormancy and requires less skill and time compared with previous techniques. Ambrosia Trifida seeds were collected over 2 yr at two different collection timings (September 25, “early”; October 25, “late”), subjected to various treatments intended to release dormancy, and evaluated for emergence over 18 d in the greenhouse. The use of germination-promoting chemicals (ethephon, gibberellic acid, and thiourea) generally provided no increase in emergence compared with water and occasionally produced seedlings with abnormal growth unsuitable for further experimentation. Conditioning yielded between 30% and 33% emergence for both early and late collections of seeds with no afterripening period compared with 0% emergence for seeds imbibed in water. Following an 8-wk period of dry storage at 4 C, conditioning yielded nearly 80% emergence for both collection timings, while emergence of seeds imbibed in water was 10% and 27% for early and late collections, respectively. Soil stratification in moist soil for 8 wk at 4 C was the second most effective treatment, yielding 46% to 49% emergence across both collections. Parameters of the Weibull function further indicated the conditioning treatment had the fastest rate of emergence and shortest lag phase between planting and first emergence. Methods to germinate A. Trifida without an afterripening period have previously been unsuccessful. Therefore, the seed-conditioning method outlined in this work will be useful in expediting the confirmation of herbicide-resistant A. Trifida incidences.

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  • differential antioxidant enzyme activity in rapid response glyphosate resistant Ambrosia Trifida
    Pest Management Science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Nick T. Harre, Haozhen Nie, Yiwei Jiang, Bryan G. Young

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND The giant ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida L.) rapid-response (RR) biotype exhibits a sacrificial form of glyphosate resistance whereby an oxidative burst in mature leaves results in foliage loss, while juvenile leaves remain uninjured. This work investigated the safening capacity of antioxidant enzymes in RR juvenile leaves following glyphosate treatment and examined cross tolerance to paraquat. RESULTS Basal antioxidant enzyme activities were similar between glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and RR biotypes. Lipid peroxidation was first detected in RR mature leaves at 8 h after treatment (HAT) and by 32 HAT was 5.3 and 21.1 times greater than that in RR juvenile leaves and GS leaves, respectively. Preceding lipid peroxidation in the RR biotype at 2 and 4 HAT, the only increase in enzymatic activity was observed in ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in RR juvenile leaves, particularly ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. Sensitivity to paraquat was similar between biotypes. CONCLUSION The RR biotype is not inherently more tolerant to oxidative stress. The difference in tissue damage between RR juvenile and mature leaves following glyphosate treatment is attributable at least partially to the transient increase in antioxidant enzyme expression in juvenile leaves (0-8 HAT), but may also be attributable to lower overall RR induction in juvenile leaves compared with mature leaves. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

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  • Differential antioxidant enzyme activity in rapid‐response glyphosate‐resistant Ambrosia Trifida
    Pest management science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Nick T. Harre, Haozhen Nie, Yiwei Jiang, Bryan G. Young

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND The giant ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida L.) rapid-response (RR) biotype exhibits a sacrificial form of glyphosate resistance whereby an oxidative burst in mature leaves results in foliage loss, while juvenile leaves remain uninjured. This work investigated the safening capacity of antioxidant enzymes in RR juvenile leaves following glyphosate treatment and examined cross tolerance to paraquat. RESULTS Basal antioxidant enzyme activities were similar between glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and RR biotypes. Lipid peroxidation was first detected in RR mature leaves at 8 h after treatment (HAT) and by 32 HAT was 5.3 and 21.1 times greater than that in RR juvenile leaves and GS leaves, respectively. Preceding lipid peroxidation in the RR biotype at 2 and 4 HAT, the only increase in enzymatic activity was observed in ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in RR juvenile leaves, particularly ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. Sensitivity to paraquat was similar between biotypes. CONCLUSION The RR biotype is not inherently more tolerant to oxidative stress. The difference in tissue damage between RR juvenile and mature leaves following glyphosate treatment is attributable at least partially to the transient increase in antioxidant enzyme expression in juvenile leaves (0-8 HAT), but may also be attributable to lower overall RR induction in juvenile leaves compared with mature leaves. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

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Nick T. Harre – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • An Improved Method to Shorten Physiological Dormancy of Giant Ragweed ( Ambrosia Trifida ) Seed
    Weed Science, 2019
    Co-Authors: Nick T. Harre, Stephen C. Weller, Bryan G. Young

    Abstract:

    Timely results from whole-plant, herbicide-resistant weed screenings are crucial to heighten grower awareness. However, the high degree of physiological dormancy of giant ragweed ( Ambrosia Trifida L.) seed exacerbates this process. The most effective methods for alleviating dormancy, to date, are either labor-intensive (embryo excision) or require several weeks (soil stratification). This research describes a conditioning process involving clipping and aeration of seed in water that is highly effective at alleviating dormancy and requires less skill and time compared with previous techniques. Ambrosia Trifida seeds were collected over 2 yr at two different collection timings (September 25, “early”; October 25, “late”), subjected to various treatments intended to release dormancy, and evaluated for emergence over 18 d in the greenhouse. The use of germination-promoting chemicals (ethephon, gibberellic acid, and thiourea) generally provided no increase in emergence compared with water and occasionally produced seedlings with abnormal growth unsuitable for further experimentation. Conditioning yielded between 30% and 33% emergence for both early and late collections of seeds with no afterripening period compared with 0% emergence for seeds imbibed in water. Following an 8-wk period of dry storage at 4 C, conditioning yielded nearly 80% emergence for both collection timings, while emergence of seeds imbibed in water was 10% and 27% for early and late collections, respectively. Soil stratification in moist soil for 8 wk at 4 C was the second most effective treatment, yielding 46% to 49% emergence across both collections. Parameters of the Weibull function further indicated the conditioning treatment had the fastest rate of emergence and shortest lag phase between planting and first emergence. Methods to germinate A. Trifida without an afterripening period have previously been unsuccessful. Therefore, the seed-conditioning method outlined in this work will be useful in expediting the confirmation of herbicide-resistant A. Trifida incidences.

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  • differential antioxidant enzyme activity in rapid response glyphosate resistant Ambrosia Trifida
    Pest Management Science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Nick T. Harre, Haozhen Nie, Yiwei Jiang, Bryan G. Young

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND The giant ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida L.) rapid-response (RR) biotype exhibits a sacrificial form of glyphosate resistance whereby an oxidative burst in mature leaves results in foliage loss, while juvenile leaves remain uninjured. This work investigated the safening capacity of antioxidant enzymes in RR juvenile leaves following glyphosate treatment and examined cross tolerance to paraquat. RESULTS Basal antioxidant enzyme activities were similar between glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and RR biotypes. Lipid peroxidation was first detected in RR mature leaves at 8 h after treatment (HAT) and by 32 HAT was 5.3 and 21.1 times greater than that in RR juvenile leaves and GS leaves, respectively. Preceding lipid peroxidation in the RR biotype at 2 and 4 HAT, the only increase in enzymatic activity was observed in ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in RR juvenile leaves, particularly ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. Sensitivity to paraquat was similar between biotypes. CONCLUSION The RR biotype is not inherently more tolerant to oxidative stress. The difference in tissue damage between RR juvenile and mature leaves following glyphosate treatment is attributable at least partially to the transient increase in antioxidant enzyme expression in juvenile leaves (0-8 HAT), but may also be attributable to lower overall RR induction in juvenile leaves compared with mature leaves. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

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  • Differential antioxidant enzyme activity in rapid‐response glyphosate‐resistant Ambrosia Trifida
    Pest management science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Nick T. Harre, Haozhen Nie, Yiwei Jiang, Bryan G. Young

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND The giant ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida L.) rapid-response (RR) biotype exhibits a sacrificial form of glyphosate resistance whereby an oxidative burst in mature leaves results in foliage loss, while juvenile leaves remain uninjured. This work investigated the safening capacity of antioxidant enzymes in RR juvenile leaves following glyphosate treatment and examined cross tolerance to paraquat. RESULTS Basal antioxidant enzyme activities were similar between glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and RR biotypes. Lipid peroxidation was first detected in RR mature leaves at 8 h after treatment (HAT) and by 32 HAT was 5.3 and 21.1 times greater than that in RR juvenile leaves and GS leaves, respectively. Preceding lipid peroxidation in the RR biotype at 2 and 4 HAT, the only increase in enzymatic activity was observed in ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in RR juvenile leaves, particularly ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. Sensitivity to paraquat was similar between biotypes. CONCLUSION The RR biotype is not inherently more tolerant to oxidative stress. The difference in tissue damage between RR juvenile and mature leaves following glyphosate treatment is attributable at least partially to the transient increase in antioxidant enzyme expression in juvenile leaves (0-8 HAT), but may also be attributable to lower overall RR induction in juvenile leaves compared with mature leaves. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

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Péter Poczai – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Development of chloroplast microsatellite markers for giant ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida).
    Applications in plant sciences, 2020
    Co-Authors: Himanshu Sharma, Jaakko Hyvönen, Péter Poczai

    Abstract:

    Premise Plant invasions are increasing globally, and extensive study of the genetic background of the source and invading populations is needed to understand such biological processes. For this reason, chloroplast microsatellite markers were identified to explore the genetic diversity of the noxious weed Ambrosia Trifida (Asteraceae). Methods and Results The complete chloroplast genome of A. Trifida was mined for microsatellite loci, and 15 novel chloroplast primers were identified to assess the genetic diversity of 49 Ambrosia samples. The number of alleles amplified ranged from two to six, with an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Shannon’s information index varied from 0.305 and 1.467, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.178 to 0.645, and the polymorphism information content value ranged from 0.211 to 0.675 (average 0.428). The cross-species transferability of the 15 microsatellite loci was also evaluated in four related Ambrosia species (A. artemisiifolia, A. maritima, A. psilostachya, and A. tenuifolia). Conclusions The novel chloroplast microsatellite markers developed in the current study demonstrate substantial cross-species transferability and will be helpful in future genetic diversity studies of A. Trifida and related species.

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  • Sequencing the Plastid Genome of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida, Asteraceae) From a Herbarium Specimen.
    Frontiers in plant science, 2019
    Co-Authors: Gaurav Sablok, Jaakko Hyvönen, Ali Amiryousefi, Péter Poczai

    Abstract:

    We report the first plastome sequence of giant ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida); with this new genome information, we assessed phylogeny of Asteraceae and the transcriptional profiling against glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed. Assembly and genic features show a normal angiosperm quadripartite plastome structure with no signatures of deviation in gene directionality. Comparative analysis revealed large inversions across the plastome of giant ragweed and the previously sequenced members of the plant family. Asteraceae plastid genomes contain two inversions of 22.8-kb and 3.3-kb, with the former located between trnS-GCU and trnG-UCC genes, while the other is between trnE-UUC and trnT-GGU genes. The plastid genome sequences of A. Trifida and the related species, A. artemisiifolia, are identical in gene content and arrangement, but they differ in length. The phylogeny obtained is well resolved and congruent with previous hypotheses about phylogenetic relationship of Asteraceae. The origin of Ambrosia is dated to ca. 16 My BP (13 – 20 My BP). Expression divergence revealed differences in the relative expressions at the exonic and intronic levels providing hints towards the ecological adaptation of the genus. Giant ragweed shows various levels of glyphosate resistance with introns displaying higher expression patterns in resistant time points after the assumed herbicide treatment.

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  • Image_3_Sequencing the Plastid Genome of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida, Asteraceae) From a Herbarium Specimen.pdf
    , 2019
    Co-Authors: Gaurav Sablok, Jaakko Hyvönen, Ali Amiryousefi, Péter Poczai

    Abstract:

    We report the first plastome sequence of giant ragweed (Ambrosia Trifida); with this new genome information, we assessed the phylogeny of Asteraceae and the transcriptional profiling against glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed. Assembly and genic features show a normal angiosperm quadripartite plastome structure with no signatures of deviation in gene directionality. Comparative analysis revealed large inversions across the plastome of giant ragweed and the previously sequenced members of the plant family. Asteraceae plastid genomes contain two inversions of 22.8 and 3.3 kb; the former is located between trnS-GCU and trnG-UCC genes, and the latter between trnE-UUC and trnT-GGU genes. The plastid genome sequences of A. Trifida and the related species, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, are identical in gene content and arrangement, but they differ in length. The phylogeny is well-resolved and congruent with previous hypotheses about the phylogenetic relationship of Asteraceae. Transcriptomic analysis revealed divergence in the relative expressions at the exonic and intronic levels, providing hints toward the ecological adaptation of the genus. Giant ragweed shows various levels of glyphosate resistance, with introns displaying higher expression patterns at resistant time points after the assumed herbicide treatment.

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