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Greg W. Rouse – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • New deep-sea species of Xenoturbella and the position of Xenacoelomorpha
    Nature, 2016
    Co-Authors: Greg W. Rouse, Nerida G. Wilson, Jose I. Carvajal, Robert C. Vrijenhoek

    Abstract:

    The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden^ 1 , 2 , but their taxonomic placement remains unstable^ 3 , 4 . Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs^ 5 , 6 , but the tissues can be contaminated with prey^ 7 , 8 . They were then considered deuterostomes^ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 . Further taxon sampling and analysis have grouped Xenoturbella with acoelomorphs (=Xenacoelomorpha) as sister to all other Bilateria (=Nephrozoa)^ 14 , 15 , or placed Xenacoelomorpha inside Deuterostomia with Ambulacraria (Hemichordata + Echinodermata)^ 16 . Here we describe four new species of Xenoturbella and reassess those hypotheses. A large species (>20 cm long) was found at cold-water hydrocarbon seeps at 2,890 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California (Mexico). A second large species (~10 cm long) also occurred at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California. The third large species (~15 cm long) was found at ~3,700 m depth near a newly discovered carbonate-hosted hydrothermal vent in the Gulf of California. Finally, a small species (~2.5 cm long), found near a whale carcass at 631 m depth in Monterey Submarine Canyon (California), resembles the two nominal species from Sweden. Analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes places the three larger species as a sister clade to the smaller Atlantic and Pacific species. Phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomic sequences support placement of Xenacoelomorpha as sister to Nephrozoa or Protostomia. Description of four new species of Xenoturbella and phylogenomic analyses, aligning Xenacoelomorpha as sister group to the rest of Bilateria, or as sister to Protostomia. Lacking a centralized nervous system, coelom, anus and reproductive organs, the deep-sea flatworm Xenoturbella presents problems when it comes to its classification and teasing out its evolutionary history. Despite its simplicity, some of Xenoturbella ‘s features appear to align it among the deuterostomes, the group of animals that includes ourselves. If true, this implies either a radical simplification of the body plan or the acquisition of many key deuterostome features independently by the various deuterostome groups. Two papers in this issue tackle different aspects of Xenoturbella , but together, move the field on a notch. Greg Rouse et al . add four new deep-sea species of Xenoturbella from the eastern Pacific Ocean to the two already known from the Atlantic. Phylogenomic analysis aligns them at the base of the Protostomia or even as basal bilaterians — much as would be expected from their simple morphology and not invoking radical simplification. Andreas Hejnol and colleagues come to a broadly similar conclusion based on robust phylogenetic analysis using eleven transcriptomes of Xeonturbella and acoel worms.

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  • New deep-sea species of Xenoturbella and the position of Xenacoelomorpha
    Nature, 2016
    Co-Authors: Greg W. Rouse, Nerida G. Wilson, Jose I. Carvajal, Robert C. Vrijenhoek

    Abstract:

    The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden, but their taxonomic placement remains unstable. Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs, but the tissues can be contaminated with prey. They were then considered deuterostomes. Further taxon sampling and analysis have grouped Xenoturbella with acoelomorphs (=Xenacoelomorpha) as sister to all other Bilateria (=Nephrozoa), or placed Xenacoelomorpha inside Deuterostomia with Ambulacraria (Hemichordata + Echinodermata). Here we describe four new species of Xenoturbella and reassess those hypotheses. A large species (>20 cm long) was found at cold-water hydrocarbon seeps at 2,890 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California (Mexico). A second large species (~10 cm long) also occurred at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California. The third large species (~15 cm long) was found at ~3,700 m depth near a newly discovered carbonate-hosted hydrothermal vent in the Gulf of California. Finally, a small species (~2.5 cm long), found near a whale carcass at 631 m depth in Monterey Submarine Canyon (California), resembles the two nominal species from Sweden. Analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes places the three larger species as a sister clade to the smaller Atlantic and Pacific species. Phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomic sequences support placement of Xenacoelomorpha as sister to Nephrozoa or Protostomia.

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  • Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions
    Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 2011
    Co-Authors: Gregory D. Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet, Casey W. Dunn, Andreas Hejnol, Reinhardt M. Kristensen, Ricardo C. Neves, Greg W. Rouse, Katrine Worsaae, Martin V. Sørensen

    Abstract:

    Metazoa comprises 35–40 phyla that include some 1.3 million described species. Phylogenetic analyses of metazoan interrelationships have progressed in the past two decades from those based on morphology and/or targeted-gene approaches using single and then multiple loci to the more recent phylogenomic approaches that use hundreds or thousands of genes from genome and transcriptome sequencing projects. A stable core of the tree for bilaterian animals is now at hand, and instability and conflict are becoming restricted to a key set of important but contentious relationships. Acoelomorph flatworms (Acoela + Nemertodermatida) and Xenoturbella are sister groups. The position of this clade remains controversial, with different analyses supporting either a sister-group relation to other bilaterians (=Nephrozoa, composed of Protostomia and Deuterostomia) or membership in Deuterostomia. The main clades of deuterostomes (Ambulacraria and Chordata) and protostomes (Ecdysozoa and Spiralia) are recovered in numerous analyses based on varied molecular samples, and also receive anatomical and developmental support. Outstanding issues in protostome phylogenetics are the position of Chaetognatha within the protostome clade, and the monophyly of a group of spiralians collectively named Platyzoa. In contrast to the broad consensus over key questions in bilaterian phylogeny, the relationships of the five main metazoan lineages—Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria—remain subject to conflicting topologies according to different taxonomic samples and analytical approaches. Whether deep bilaterian divergences such as the split between protostome and deuterostome clades date to the Cryogenian or Ediacaran (and, thus, the extent to which the pre-Cambrian fossil record is incomplete) is sensitive to dating methodology.

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Hiroaki Nakano – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Xenoturbella bocki exhibits direct development with similarities to Acoelomorpha
    Nature Communications, 2013
    Co-Authors: Hiroaki Nakano, Maximilian J. Telford, Kennet Lundin, Sarah J. Bourlat, Peter Funch, Jens R. Nyengaard, Matthias Obst, Michael C. Thorndyke

    Abstract:

    Xenoturbella bocki, a marine animal with a simple body plan, has recently been suggested to be sister group to the Acoelomorpha, together forming the new phylum Xenacoelomorpha. The phylogenetic position of the phylum is still under debate, either as an early branching bilaterian or as a sister group to the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms) within the deuterostomes. Although development has been described for several species of Acoelomorpha, little is known about the life cycle of Xenoturbella. Here we report the embryonic stages of Xenoturbella, and show that it is a direct developer without a feeding larval stage. This mode of development is similar to that of the acoelomorphs, supporting the newly proposed phylum Xenacoelomorpha and suggesting that the last common ancestor of the phylum might have been a direct developer.

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  • Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella
    Nature, 2011
    Co-Authors: Hervé Philippe, Hiroaki Nakano, Kevin J. Peterson, Albert J. Poustka, Henner Brinkmann, Richard R. Copley, Leonid L. Moroz, Andreas Wallberg, Maximilian J. Telford

    Abstract:

    Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are marine worms with contentious ancestry. Both were originally associated with the flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but molecular data have revised their phylogenetic positions, generally linking Xenoturbellida to the deuterostomes^ 1 , 2 and positioning the Acoelomorpha as the most basally branching bilaterian group(s)^ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 . Recent phylogenomic data suggested that Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are sister taxa and together constitute an early branch of Bilateria^ 7 . Here we assemble three independent data sets—mitochondrial genes, a phylogenomic data set of 38,330 amino-acid positions and new microRNA (miRNA) complements—and show that the position of Acoelomorpha is strongly affected by a long-branch attraction (LBA) artefact. When we minimize LBA we find consistent support for a position of both acoelomorphs and Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes. The most likely phylogeny links Xenoturbella and Acoelomorpha in a clade we call Xenacoelomorpha. The Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group of the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms). We show that analyses of miRNA complements^ 8 have been affected by character loss in the acoels and that both groups possess one miRNA and the gene Rsb66 otherwise specific to deuterostomes. In addition, Xenoturbella shares one miRNA with the Ambulacrarians, and two with the acoels. This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, such as ciliary ultrastructure and diffuse nervous system, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenacoelomorpha including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits. The acoel flatworms are among the simplest animal forms, so simple that they have neither a through-gut nor a body cavity. But new molecular research has pulled them from their basal position in animal evolution, uniting them with creatures such as echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins and the like) and placing them much closer to the chordates, the group that includes humans. This follows previous revelations that Xenoturbella , a simple flatworm with mysterious evolutionary connections, also belonged to this group. The research implies that acoels are not primitively simple, as had been thought, but have become simpler with time, losing features such as a body cavity, anus and gill slits. New molecular research has pulled acoel flatworms from their basal position in animal evolution, uniting them with creatures such as echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins and allies) — indeed, very much closer to the chordates, the group that includes ourselves. The work follows previous revelations that Xenoturbella , a simple flatworm of mysterious evolutionary connections, also belonged to this group. The research implies that acoels are not primitively simple, as had been thought, but have lost features such as a body cavity, anus and gill slits.

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  • Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella
    Nature, 2011
    Co-Authors: Hervé Philippe, Hiroaki Nakano, Kevin J. Peterson, Albert J. Poustka, Henner Brinkmann, Richard R. Copley, Leonid L. Moroz, Andreas Wallberg, Maximilian J. Telford

    Abstract:

    Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are marine worms with contentious ancestry. Both were originally associated with the flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but molecular data have revised their phylogenetic positions, generally linking Xenoturbellida to the deuterostomes and positioning the Acoelomorpha as the most basally branching bilaterian group(s). Recent phylogenomic data suggested that Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are sister taxa and together constitute an early branch of Bilateria. Here we assemble three independent data sets-mitochondrial genes, a phylogenomic data set of 38,330 amino-acid positions and new microRNA (miRNA) complements-and show that the position of Acoelomorpha is strongly affected by a long-branch attraction (LBA) artefact. When we minimize LBA we find consistent support for a position of both acoelomorphs and Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes. The most likely phylogeny links Xenoturbella and Acoelomorpha in a clade we call Xenacoelomorpha. The Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group of the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms). We show that analyses of miRNA complements have been affected by character loss in the acoels and that both groups possess one miRNA and the gene Rsb66 otherwise specific to deuterostomes. In addition, Xenoturbella shares one miRNA with the Ambulacrarians, and two with the acoels. This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, such as ciliary ultrastructure and diffuse nervous system, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenacoelomorpha including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits.

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Marian Y Hu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • alkaline guts contribute to immunity during exposure to acidified seawater in the sea urchin larva
    The Journal of Experimental Biology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Meike Stumpp, Inga Petersen, Femke Thoben, Matthias Leippe, Marian Y Hu

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT Larval stages of members of the Abulacraria superphylum including echinoderms and hemichordates have highly alkaline midguts. To date, the reason for the evolution of such extreme pH conditions in the gut of these organisms remains unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that, analogous to the acidic stomachs of vertebrates, these alkaline conditions may represent a first defensive barrier to protect from environmental pathogens. pH-optimum curves for five different species of marine bacteria demonstrated a rapid decrease in proliferation rates by 50–60% between pH 8.5 and 9.5. Using the marine bacterium Vibrio diazotrophicus, which elicits a coordinated immune response in the larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, we studied the physiological responses of the midgut pH regulatory machinery to this pathogen. Gastroscopic microelectrode measurements demonstrate a stimulation of midgut alkalization upon infection with V. diazotrophicus accompanied by an upregulation of acid–base transporter transcripts of the midgut. Pharmacological inhibition of midgut alkalization resulted in an increased mortality rate of larvae during Vibrio infection. Reductions in seawater pH resembling ocean acidification conditions lead to moderate reductions in midgut alkalization. However, these reductions in midgut pH do not affect the immune response or resilience of sea urchin larvae to a Vibrio infection under ocean acidification conditions. Our study addressed the evolutionary benefits of the alkaline midgut of Ambulacraria larval stages. The data indicate that alkaline conditions in the gut may serve as a first defensive barrier against environmental pathogens and that this mechanism can compensate for changes in seawater pH.

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